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Fusion Physics - Energy Boon or Nuclear Gloom?. David Schilter and Shivani Sharma. Problem Statements. Is it possible to construct a potential array (electrostatic potential well) which would allow for resulting energy close to or exceeding applied voltage?

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## Fusion Physics - Energy Boon or Nuclear Gloom?

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**Fusion Physics - Energy Boon or Nuclear Gloom?**David Schilter and Shivani Sharma**Problem Statements...**• Is it possible to construct a potential array (electrostatic potential well) which would allow for resulting energy close to or exceeding applied voltage? • What electrode configuration in an IEC device can both avoid energy loss due to space charge as well as encouraging ion acceleration? • Would the idea of circulating ions provide a solution to the problems of space charge while also inducing nuclear fusion?**Plasmas**• AC grid causes radio frequency discharge which creates oscillating B and E ionizes the hydrogen gas used to create a plasma, a mixture of high energy ions and electrons • Diffuses into a chamber that also contains a neutral hydrogen background gas, which is not affected by the electrodes**Experimental Setup**• Inner spectacle (=22mm) cathode • Outer mesh anode (earthed) • Pressure maintained at 5mTorr (7x10-6 atm) • Magnetic field was set at 70 gauss (7x10-3 T) • Voltages of 1-10kV applied to cathode**B**Inner rings (cathode, -ve bias) Outer mesh (anode) Electrode Geometry**Some theory...**• The H line (656.3nm) represents the first atomic transition in the Balmer series (from n=3 to n=2) • 1/ = RH[(1/2)2 - (1/n)2] where Rydberg’s constant = RH = 1.0968x107m-1 • The spectrometer measures intensity near this wavelength, providing a wavelength distribution. • Fusion cross-section (probability) of 1H is many orders of magnitude less than deuterium (2H) or tritium (3H)**Charge exchange reactions occur as fast,ionized**plasmacollideswith stationarybackground gas In all cases, the high energy plasma becomes unstable due to the exchange and fragments This results in the excited radical H* which is detected by the spectrometer H++ HH*+ H+ H2++ H H*+ H+ H+ H3++ H H*+ H2+ H+ H++ H2 H*+ H2+ H2++ H2 H*+ H + H2+ H3++ H2 H*+ H2+ H2+ analysed Charge-exchange Reactions**Observations**• Very slight circulation of ions observed between two rings, which were red hot • Majority of ions passed through, and continued in a roughly linear path, which created “beams” • Purple colour characteristic of high energy hydrogen**H-line**“knee” Energy Distributions • Shifts involved are characteristic of the various charge-exchange reactions • The “knee” relates to the most energetic ions • Intense alpha line is due to background gas • Note symmetryions moving toward and away from spectrometer**Results Continued...**• Energy plotted against voltage results in a linear relationship • It was also found that that B had no effect on the maximum ion energies • Efficiency=gradient, which in this case is approximately 7%**Conclusions**• Excited and Doppler shifted atoms were observed at wavelength up to 0.89nm greater than that of the H line (o=656.3nm) corresponding to energies of 8.7x10-1keV • Efficiency of 7% clearly too lownew grid design • B not strong enough to induce circulation in a large proportion of the ions • Ions accelerated from each direction rather than in a circular motion to avoid the “virtual anode” • The simulation of the exact same conditions were undertaken and discrepancies accounted for...

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