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BPK 303. Anthropometry. Spring 2014. Anthropometric Measures Fall 2013. Anthropometric Equipment. Anthropometry. Landmarking necessary for repeatability of measures Only a few landmarks are required for the measures used in this course. Landmarks must be short horizontal lines.

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slide1

BPK303

Anthropometry

Spring 2014

anthropometry
Anthropometry
  • Landmarking necessary for repeatability of measures
  • Only a few landmarks are required for the measures used in this course

Landmarks must be

short horizontal lines

Standard Landmarking & Measurement Position

stretch stature height
Stretch Stature (Height)
  • Head held in Frankfort Plane
  • Requires two people to measure
  • Feet together
  • Stretch justified as overcoming diurnal variation
  • Check for heel lifting (especially in children)
variability of height
Variability of Height
  • Height can vary up to 2.5cm a day or more
  • Compression of the intervertebral discs occurs
  • Lost height can be restored with fetal curls
weight
Weight
  • Fluctuation
  • Calibrated scale
  • Beam balances tend to hold calibration longer
  • OMRON Scale and Body Composition Analyzer
skinfolds
Skinfolds
  • Parallel fold of double thickness of skin plus subcutaneous adipose tissue
  • Caliper applied perpendicular to the fold
  • Fold held firmly by left hand while full pressure is applied by caliper
  • 2 second timing until reading
  • Skinfolds can be measured at any site where there is a loose junction between subcutaneous adipose tissue and the underlying fascia.
skinfold calipers
Skinfold Calipers
  • Slim Guide
  • Caliper Pressure?

Spring Tension / Jaw Surface Area

  • Harpenden

10 gm.mm-2

  • Lange

35 gm.mm-2

  • Slim Guide

11.4 gm.mm-2

Harpenden

Slim Guide

Lange

Fatometer

Adipometer

skinfold descriptions
Skinfold Descriptions

SubscapularSkinfold

the caliper distance when applied one centimeter distally from the left thumb and index finger raising a fold beneath the inferior angle of the scapula in a direction running obliquely downwards at an angle determined by the natural lines of tension in the skin. The pick up can be made consistent by placing the little finger of the left hand on the angle of the scapula then placing the index finger just to the right of it and the thumb just below it.

Site

girths
Girths
  • Circumference perpendicular to the long axis of the body segment
  • Tape should be touching but not indenting skin
  • Cross-handed technique
projected heights
Projected Heights
  • Perpendicular distance from floor to landmark
  • Tibiale Height usually measured standing although sometimes used seated for disabled populations.
  • Derived length = difference between two projected heights
direct lengths
Direct Lengths
  • From landmark to landmark
bone widths breadths
Bone Widths & Breadths
  • Caliper type and placement specific to measurement
  • Press firmly while measurement is made
  • Vernier Scale
validity reliability
Validity & Reliability

Unreliable

Not Valid

Reliable

Not Valid

Unreliable

Valid?

Reliable

Valid

measurement reliability
Measurement Reliability
  • How do you quantify reliability?
  • Is a correlation coefficient adequate?
  • Technical Error of Measurement?
correlation coefficient poor indicator of reliability
Correlation Coefficient: Poor indicator of reliability
  • A high correlation between trials does not necessarily indicate reliability unless slope is 1 and intercept is 0.
  • Means of trials 1 and 2 would be different. Paired t-test with no sig. diff. between means with a high correlation would show high reliability. But this would be clumsy analysis.

r = > 0.9

Trial 2

Line of Identity

Trial 1

technical error of measurement
Technical Error of Measurement

Measure of variability between two trials

slide21
% TEM
  • To compare the relative reliabilities of measures using different units such as height and weight, a %TEM is used.
  • %TEM is the absolute TEM divided by the mean of the measurements multiplied by 100.
  • A dimensionless score that can be compared across measurements.
  • Also for same measurement when size is an issue