Estimated number of new cases annually: HIV 40,000 Chlamydia 3,000,000 Gonorrhea 1,000,000 Syphilis 70,000 Herpes II 1,000,000 HPV 5,500,000 PID 1,000,000 Hepatitis B 120,000 Trich 5,000,000 Source: Center of Disease Control
Why are STD’s an epidemic? • Many of the STD’s have NO symptoms! 2. Transmission can occur without symptoms! 3. People will lie!
WE WILL DISCUSS: • Frequency: how many each year, total # • Cause: virus, bacteria etc. • Symptoms: signs • Treatment: medications, cure • Consequences: what are the results?
GONORRHEA • Dated back to the Greek and Roman medical writings Middle Ages widespread along with syphilis • Caused by a bacteria • Peak age is 15-25 • 300,000 reported cases • 700,000 suspected cases
Detected by swab or cultures (in urethra) 50% of carriers have no symptoms Nick names: clap or drip Gonorrhea can also be found in the throat (oral sex) and rectal area. SYMPTOMS: Men: burning, discharge, swelling Drips form penis WOMEN: burning, discharge, bleeding, pain Discharge is greenish, yellow, foul smelling Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is a bacteria that can grow and multiply easily in the warm moist areas of the reproductive tract including the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes of women, and the urethra in women and men. Gonorrhea bacteria can grow in mouth, throat, eyes, and anus. • Treatment: antibiotics, oral, injectable, resistant cases (high rate)
Consequences: • Chronic pain • PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) • Infertility • Ectopic pregnancy (fallopian tube) • Joint infections • Easier HIV transmission • Newborns: blindness, joint infection
Frequency • Not reported until 1964 and climbed from 7,000 to 700,000 infected • 3,000,000 new cases each year • #1 bacterial STD in teens! • Most common STD caused by bacteria!
FYI • The population in the US consists of an estimated 4 million individuals per age group. • 5 year olds 4 million • 6 year olds 4 million • 7 year olds 4 million
SYMPTOMS: • Burning, thin discharge • 80% of males and females have no symptoms!!!! ASYMPTOMATIC: NO SIGNS OF THE DISEASE TREATMENT: • Oral antibiotics
Consequences WOMEN: • PID if untreated • Infertility • Ectopic pregnancy: baby dies, mother could die, lose tube • Arthritis • Skin, eye, and urethra problems • Newborn: blindness, pneumonia
SYPHILIS • Caused by a bacteria (spirochete) • Christopher Columbus • Appeared in Europe in 1494 • Old cure mercury • One of the few diseases with more men diagnosed than women • Has become a minor player in the US • Known as “The Great Pretender” • Marriage license takes blood test
THREE STAGES: Stage 1: Painless sores called chancre appears 1-5 weeks after contact. Appears on mouth or sex organs. Stage 2: Body rash on hands, chest, back and feet, no itching, fever, condyloma lata (warts on bottom) Stage 3: 2-25 years later-attacks brain, heart, CNS, liver and kidneys
SYPHILIS • Dementia • Seizures • Blindness • Paralysis • Heart Problems • Death Treatment: Antibiotics, injectable
Lost Children Of Rockdale County • “The Lost children Of Rockdale County” explores how a 1996 syphilis outbreak in a well off Atlanta suburb affected over 200 teenagers and revealed their lives unknown to parents: group sex, binge drinking, drugs and violence. Some were as young as 12 and 13 years old.
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS CAUSED BY A FUNGUS! YEAST INFECTION
YEAST INFECTION • Monlliasis (yeast infection) FEMALES: • Thick, white curdy, cottage cheese discharge • Itching, redness, irritations and swelling MALES: • Rash, itchy, redness, fungus grows in skin folds
Pregnancy Diabetes Wet clothing Antibiotics Stress Diet Treatment: antibiotics Menstruation Douching Birth control pills Obesity Poor nutrition Yeast infections can be transmitted sexually and nonsexually:
TRICHOMONAS • Caused by a protozoan parasites • Most males and females have no symptoms FEMALES: greenish, yellow frothy odorous vaginal discharge, swelling, redness, burning MALES: pain or burning, swelling or redness TREATMENT: antibiotics
PUBIC LICE (CRABS) • Resembles little crabs • 6 legs • Gray or rust color • Feeds off blood from capillaries • 30 day life span • Swings from hair to hair • Infests hairy area
SYMPTOMS: itching, redness. And rash TREATMENT: medication, shampoo TRANSMITTED BY: Close contact Clothing Bed linen Toilet seats Contact with lice PUBIC LICE
SCABIES Nick named the 7 year itch Mites need a human host Burrow under skin to lay eggs Eggs hatch in 3-4 days SYMPTOMS: raised redden areas, itching in infested areas, infected due to scratching
VAGINITIS • Caused by a microscopic organism FEMALE: itching, discharge, inflammation of genitals MALE: few symptoms, itching TREATMENT: antibiotics
PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE Sexually active women between 15 and 25 have the highest rate of infection. PID infects the fallopian tube. Ovaries and/or uterus. Infection may spread to the entire pelvic region. SCAR TISSUE CAN LEAD TO INFERTLITY!
Notice the right side and how inflamed and swollen the fallopian tube is! The mucous is covering the ovary compartment.
Symptoms of PID: • Longer periods • More painful periods • Abnormal vaginal bleeding • Sever lower pain • Nausea and vomiting • Fever and chills • Temperature of 102 and greater
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS CAUSED BY VIRUSES! GENITAL WARTS HERPES SIMPLEX 2 HIV/AIDS
GENITAL WARTS • Caused by a virus • Pinkish or reddish cauliflower shaped warts in, on, or around the vagina, cervix, rectum and vaginal opening of the female. • Warts found on penal shaft, glans, and rectum of the male. • Incubation is several days to months after contact • Most common sexually transmitted virus!