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Lap-Band for Weight Loss

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  1. Lap-Band for Weight Loss Marc Bessler, M.D. New York Presbyterian Center for Obesity Surgery FDA Approved

  2. Obesity is a Disease • 55% of Americans are overweight or obese • These rates, already among the highest in the world, are increasing • Patients suffer social and economic discrimination • The Institute of Medicine calculated the health care cost to be more than $70 billion annually • Mortality : 2-10 fold increase

  3. What Causes Obesity ? • Obesity develops when energy intake consistently exceeds energy output • Complex disease involving:- genetics - physiology- metabolism - appetite regulation - environmental factors - psychosocial & cultural

  4. Why Lose Weight ? • Feel Better • Quality of Life • Look Better • Be Healthier • Avoid Discrimination • Live Longer

  5. Medical Problems from Obesity • Many medical problems are caused by or worsened by obesity. • Most get better or go away with significant weight loss. • These medical problems are called comorbidities.

  6. High Blood Pressure Diabetes High Cholesterol High Triglycerides Heart Disease Joint Pains Difficulty Breathing Sleep Apnea Heartburn Urine Incontinence Varicose Veins Difficulty Exercising Fatty Liver Increased Cancer Risk Frequent Headaches Sex Hormone Problems Obesity Comorbidities

  7. Morbid Obesity • 100 pounds over Ideal Body Weight • Body Mass Index of 40 or greater • 80 pounds over Ideal Body Weight if causing significant comorbidity • Body Mass Index of 35 or greater if causing significant comorbidity

  8. Ideal Body Weight Metropolitan Life Insurance Height-Weight Table, 1983 Height Women Men Height Women Men 4’10” 115 5’8” 143 151 4’11” 117 5’9” 146 154 5’0” 119 5’10” 149 157 5”1” 122 5’11” 152 160 5’2” 125 136 6’0” 155 163 5’3” 128 138 6’1” 167 5’4” 131 140 6’2” 171 5’6” 134 142 6’3” 174 5’7” 137 145 6’4” 179

  9. Body Mass Index (BMI) • A number that indicates degree of overweight. • Eliminates height from consideration • Calculated as 703 times weight in pounds • divided by height in inches squared. • Normal is 20-25

  10. BMI Table Height in Inches Height in Inches Height in Inches Wt57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75Wt 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75Wt 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75154 33 31 29 27 26 24 23 22 20 19 165 36 33 31 29 28 26 24 23 22 21 176 38 36 33 31 29 28 26 25 23 22 187 40 38 35 3331 29 28 26 25 24 198 43 40 37 35 33 31 29 28 26 25 209 45 42 40 37 35 33 31 29 28 26 220 48 44 42 39 37 35 33 31 29 28 231 50 47 44 41 39 36 34 32 31 29 243 52 49 46 43 40 38 36 34 32 30 254 55 51 48 45 42 40 38 35 34 32 265 57 53 50 47 44 42 39 37 35 33 276 59 56 52 49 46 43 41 39 37 35 28762 58 54 51 48 45 42 40 38 3629864 60 56 53 50 47 44 42 39 3730967 62 58 55 51 48 46 43 41 39 320 69 64 60 57 53 50 47 45 42 40 331 71 67 62 59 55 52 49 46 44 42 342 74 69 65 61 57 54 51 48 45 43 353 76 71 67 63 59 55 52 49 47 44 364 78 73 69 64 61 57 54 51 48 46 375 81 76 71 66 62 59 56 52 50 47 386 83 78 73 68 64 61 57 54 51 48 397 86 80 75 70 66 62 59 56 53 50 408 88 82 77 72 68 64 60 57 54 51 419 90 84 79 74 70 66 62 59 56 53 430 93 87 81 76 72 67 64 60 57 54 441 95 89 83 78 73 69 65 62 58 55 452 98 91 85 80 75 71 67 63 60 57 463 99 93 87 82 77 73 69 65 61 58

  11. Risk of Death and Obesity D E A T H BMI

  12. Treatment Options • Diets • Exercise • Behavior Modification • Medication • Surgery

  13. Diets Don’t Work ! • Almost anyone can lose weight dieting • Almost no one can maintain long term weight loss • 97% of patients 100 pounds or more overweight regain lost weight within 2 years • Often gain more than was lost

  14. Exercise • Very important as part of any weight loss program • Regular exercise causes more weight loss and keeps it off longer • Length of time is more important than intensity • Rarely enough as treatment alone

  15. Medications • Cause only modest weight loss 10-15% • Need to be taken indefinitely • Often cause side effects • Expensive and often not covered by insurance • Only work well in combination with diet and exercise

  16. Surgery • There are 2 safe and effective procedures commonly used in the US • Vertical Banded Gastroplasty • Gastric Bypass • 20 year history and follow up • Only proven long term effective treatment • Patients should have failed other treatments

  17. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty • VBG commonly known as Stomach Stapling • Small stomach pouch • Staples partition stomach • Plastic band controls outlet to rest of stomach

  18. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty • Advantages • Simple to perform • Bottom of stomach and duodenum can be easily examined • Low incidence of leaks • Normal absorption of nutrients • ? lower risk of bowel obstruction

  19. Problems with VBG • Staple line can pull through (break) • Band too tight for some causes vomiting • Not adjustable • Infection or erosion of band • Can lead to poor dietary habits • Failure in 25-50% of patients • Has fallen out of favor in US

  20. Gastric Bypass • Small stomach pouch made from top of stomach • Pouch empties directly to intestine • Food and enzymes meet lower down in the intestine • No plastic ring

  21. Gastric Bypass Advantages • No plastic ring • Greater weight loss • Causes avoidance of sweets and fats • Most foods well tolerated • Low failure rate • Little weight regain

  22. Problems with Gastric Bypass • Higher rate of complications • 1/2 - 1% death rate • Vitamins and minerals poorly absorbed • Laparoscopy may increase complications • Difficult to reverse

  23. Lap-Band System

  24. Lap-Band System • System Components • Silastic band • Integrated bladder • Self locking buckle • Tubing • Port

  25. Lap-Band

  26. Lap-Band Port

  27. Lap-Band the Operation

  28. Lap Band Around the World • Most common operation for obesity in Europe, Australia and South America. • Over 50,000 implanted worldwide in past 9 years • Extremely safe with good weight loss • Recently FDA approval in the US

  29. Lap-Band Placement

  30. Lap Band Closure

  31. Lap-Band Placement

  32. Lap Band Placement

  33. Lap-Band Fixation

  34. Diet after Operation • Fluids • Pureed foods • Soft food • Regular food • Meats, fresh breads and white rice come last and may not be well tolerated except in small amounts and well chewed

  35. Office Visits • 2 weeks after surgery • 6 weeks after surgery • may have first band adjustment • Monthly for first year • band adjustments as indicated • Quarterly in second year • Yearly for life

  36. Band Adjustment

  37. Lap-Band Inflation

  38. Over Inflation

  39. Education Nurse understand procedure care after operation Nutritionist diet changes healthy balanced food choices Surgery Commitment follow up follow the rules Components for Success

  40. Weight Loss • More Gradual than other operations • Continues longer up to 2 years • 1/3-2/3 of excess weight • Depends on following rules • No Sweets • No Snacking • No liquids with calories • A Tool not a Miracle

  41. Complications • Band Slippage 3-5% • Band Erosion 1-3% • Tubing Leak 2-3% • Port Infection 1-2% • Stomach Perforation <1% • Esophageal Dilation ? • Death <0.1% (less than 1/1000)

  42. Summary • Obesity is a significant health problem • Non-surgical treatment is ineffective long term • Gastric Bypass is currently most common in US • Lap-Band most common in rest of World • Lap-Band is safer than Gastric Bypass but may offer less weight loss on average • Commitment to long term dietary change is key to success with Lap-Band

  43. Thank You