Chapter 14 Managing Change . 049953 Soroush kiani. Chapter Objectives . The Nature of Change Costs and Benefits of Change Resistance to Change Basic Frameworks for Interpreting Change Role of Transformational Leadership in Change Practices to Build Support for Change
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- The whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it.
- Change is a human as well as technical problem.
- One of their role is to be proactive which means they should introduce continual organizational changes so as to bring better fit between firm and its environment.
- Their second role is to be reactive which is to restore and maintain the group equilibrium and personal adjustment that change upsets.
- Minor changes affect only a few people and in these cases a new equilibrium may be reached readily, such as adding new members to a work group.
- More dramatic changes deals with the entire core of an organization. Examples include hostile takeovers of firms, reengineering of organizations, act of public terrorism and etc.
- One cause is Personal History.
- Second cause is The Work Environment itself.
- When people are observed, or believe that someone cares about them, they act differently.
Group Response to Change
- Social Interaction
Nature and Effects
Reasons for Resistance
-They may not feel comfortable with the nature of the change it self. It may violate their belief system, they may believe the decision is technically incorrect, or they my simply be reluctant exchange comfort of certainty and familiarity for uncertainty.
-The method by which change is introduced. People may resent having been ill-informed, or they may reject an insensitive and authoritarian approach that did not involve them in the change process.
-The inequity experienced when people perceive themselves being changed while someone else appear to gain the benefits of the change.
Type of Resistance
Implications of Resistance
Possible Benefits of Resistance
Transformational Leadership and Change
-Creating Vision. Transformational leaders create and communicate a vision for the organization. A vision crystallized long-range image or idea of what can and should be accomplished. A vision may also integrate the shared beliefs and values that serve as a basis for changing an organization’s culture.
-Communicating Charisma. Leaders should persuade employees that the vision is urgent and motivate them to achieve it. Charisma is a leadership characteristic that can help influence employees to take early and sustained action. Charismatic leaders are dynamic risk takers, they can be warm mentors who treats employees individually and guide them to take action, and also they need to recognize the “emotional vulnerability” that employees experience.
-Stimulating Learning. The critical Task for transformational leaders is to develop people’s capacity to learn from the experience of change. This process is called double-loop learning which means that the way a change is handled should not only reflect current information gathered but also prepare the participations to manage future changes even more effectively. This process is in sharp contrast to single-loop learning which is just focus on current problems.
Three Stages in Change
-Unfreezing means that old ideas and practices need to be cast aside so that new ones can be learned.
-Changing is the step in which the new ideas and practices are learned. The changing step usually is also mixed with hope, discovery, and excitement.
-Refreezing means that what has been learned is integrated into actual practice. Successful on-the-job practice must be the ultimate goal of the refreezing step.
Manipulating the Forces
methods as follows:
- Adding new supporting forces.
- Removing restraining forces.
- Increasing the strength of a supporting force.
- Decreasing The strength of a restraining force.
- Converting a restraining force into a supporting force.
Building Support for Change
-Effective change focuses on both individuals and groups.
-Any changes in group forces will encourage changes in individual behavior.
-The more attractive the group is to each member, the greater its influence on a group member can be. If a member with high status support the change the influence will increase.
-If the change disrupt the group’s social system more than necessary, the group will tend to meet resistance.
-Capable leadership reinforces a climate of psychological support for change.
-It is generally better to provide objective reasons for the change.
-Ordinary requests of change should be in accord with the objectives and vision of the organization.
-Managerial and employee expectations of change may be as important as the technology of change, but expectations are not enough alone.
- By believing that the change will work, the manager acts so as to fulfill that belief. This belief is transferred to employees, who buy into probability of success and change their behavior accordingly.
-A fundamental way to build support for change is through participation.
-Participation encourage commitment rather than mere compliance with change.
-As participation increases, resistance to change tend to decrease.
-Employees want to involved and participate from the beginning to protect themselves from changes surprises.
-Another way to build employee support for the change is to make sure that there are enough rewards for them in the change situation.
-Rewards give employees a sense that progress accompanies a change and also tell them that we care about you and wants you as well as us benefit from this change.
-Also it is desirable for a change to pay off as directly and as soon as possible.
-along with shared rewards, existing employee benefits need to be protected and that’s why security during a change is very important.
-For this reason many employers guarantee workers protection from reduced earnings when new technology and methods are introduced, or some offer retraining and delay installation of labor-saving equipment.
-Grievance systems give employees a feeling of security that benefits will be protected and differences about them fairly resolved.
-Communication is essential in gaining support for change.
-When a change occur all of a group members should informed even it affects only a few of them.
-Since the flow of information may be weakest at the time it is needed most, special effort is required to maintain it in times of change.
-Change is more likely to be accepted if the people affected by it recognize a need for it before it occurs.
-This awareness can happen both naturally or it can be induced by management.
-One of the more powerful way is when Workers discover for themselves that a situation requires improvement.
-Resistance to change can be reduced by a broader understanding of employee attitudes and natural reactions to change.
-It is essential for the managers to take a broader, system-oriented perspective on change to identify the complex relationship involved.
-Organization development can be a useful method for achieving this objective.
Foundations of OD
-People want to grow and mature.
-Employees have much to offer that is not now being used at work.
-Most employees desire the opportunity to contribute.
-Groups and teams are critical to organizational success.
-Groups have powerful influence on individual behavior.
-The complex roles to be played in groups require skill development.
-Excessive controls, policies, and rules are detrimental.
-Conflict can be functional if property channeled.
-individual and organizational goals can be compatible.
Characteristics of Organization Development
the Organizational Development Process
-Data feedback and confrontation
-Action Planning and problem solving
-Use of interventions
-Evaluation and follow-up
Benefits and Limitations of OD
-Change throughout organization
-Better quality of work
-Higher job satisfaction
-Better resolution of conflict
-Commitment to objectives
-Increased willingness to change
-Creation of learning individuals and groups
-Major time requirement
-Delayed payoff period
-Possible invasion of privacy
-Possible psychological harm
-Emphasis on group processes rather than performance
-Possible conceptual ambiguity
-Difficulty in evaluation