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  2. Resources Construction Documents and Contracting, Joseph D. Coleman , 2004, Prentice Hall Construction Contracts, Keith Collier, 1987, Prentice Hall “Construction Management”, by Daniel W. Halpin and Ronald W. Woodhead, 2nd Edition , John Wiley & Sons Fidic Conditions of Contract for Construction, FOR BUILDING AND ENGINEERING WORKS DESIGNED BY THE EMPLOYER, 2005 Fidic Tendering Procedures, prequalification, tendering and award the contract, 1994. Handouts and lecture notes

  3. Grades • Research Projects & homework 30 % • Midterm Exam. 30% • Final Exam. 40%

  4. Course Outline • Introduction to construction project stages, overview of the construction contracting methods, and contracts types. • Bidding document • Invitation to bid • Instruction to bidders • Information to bidders & bid data • Biding Forms • General conditions of contract • Specific condition of contract • Specification • BOQ • Drawings • Contract forms • Methods of Tendering, Bidding and Awarding • Contract Documents and Conditions • FIDIC Form of Contracts

  5. Introduction to Construction Project Stages Lecture (1)

  6. Major Project Phases • The major phases in the project cycle that are common to most design and construction projects are : • Project Planning • Design • Schematic Design • Design Development • Contract Documents • Construction Procurement (Bidding Phase) • Construction • Post Construction

  7. Construction Project Characteristics Construction projects are different than other types of projects due to the following characteristics; • Construction projects are complex undertaking. • Every construction project is unique. • Construction projects involve a lot of uncertainties, lack of information and variables.

  8. Project Life Cycle Most of Construction projects life-cycle have common characteristics, Construction projects start with low cost and resources, high risk and uncertainty. The life-cycle of a typical construction project could be summarized as following : • Stage I : represents the project formulation, feasibility studies, and the strategic decisions needed for project continue. • Stage II : represents planning, basic design, budgeting, tendering and placing the project major contracts. • Stage III : involves the construction phase of the project, equipment installation and testing. • Stage IV : represents the final phase in the project which includes the project turnover, final testing and start-up.

  9. Project Life Cycle

  10. Lecture (2)

  11. Construction Contracting Method (delivery methods) Appointing Main Contractor Appointing Consultant Constructing Designing Traditional Approach (D-B-B): The most common delivery system is called “the traditional or standard approach” or “design-bid-build”, in which the employer assigns the design and construction phases to two different firms (consultant/designer and contractor).

  12. Traditional Approach (D-B-B): • For many years, DBB has been the most common method of project delivery for public projects, and for many private projects as well. • Design Bid-Build is effective on projects • where the owner needs both professional design services and construction services • where the designer does not require detailed knowledge of the means and methods of construction. • DBB provides the owner with a high degree of control. That’s why it is the preferred project delivery system for owners who:

  13. Traditional Approach (D-B-B): • The owner defines project goals and objectives, secures the financing, and specifies the standards and contract terms. • The owner may perform planning, conceptual design and full design, or may engage an outside design professional (designer) for some or all of these tasks. • During this planning and preliminary stage, owner and designer work as a team to obtain required permits and conduct necessary site investigations. • The designer prepares the construction bid documents to reflect the owner’s project goals and objectives, the project’s site conditions, and sound engineering practices. • Prospective contractors prepare their bids from these complete and specific bid documents. • The bidders submit their proposals to the owner, who determines the most responsive (typically the lowest) bid meeting project requirements. • In certain circumstances, owner may be justified in selecting a contractor outright and negotiating contract terms directly.

  14. Advantages of D-B-B Approach • Applicable to a wide range of projects. • Well established and easily understood. • Clearly defined roles for all parties. • Provides the lowest initial price that competitive bidders can offer. • Extensive litigation has resulted in well established legal precedents. • Insurance and bonding are well defined.

  15. Disadvantages of D-B-B Approach • Least-cost approach requires higher level of inspection. • Initial low bid might not result in ultimate lowest cost or final best value. • Designers may have limited knowledge of the true cost and scheduling implication of design decisions.

  16. Design-Build Approach Appointing design & construction contractor Tendering Designing Constructing Design-build approach is a project delivery system involving a single contract between the project employer and a design-build contractor covering both the design and construction of a project. The design-builder performs design, construction engineering, and construction according to design parameters, performance criteria and other requirements established by the employer or his representative.

  17. Design-Build Approach • The owner contracts with a single entity to provide the design and to construct the project according to that design. • The contract might be negotiated with a single design-builder or result from competitive proposals. • The selection can be based on low price or on a set of value criteria (experience, staff, bonding capacity, etc.). • Design-build provides the owner with a single point of contact for project responsibilities, eliminating the need to assist in resolving designer-contractor disputes. • With the contractor playing a major role in design, costs are typically defined and maintained to a greater degree, and the coordination of fast-track management to achieve early completion is greatly simplified. • The design-builder makes many decisions that owner would make under DBB, due to delegation of greatly increased authority.

  18. Design-Build Approach For many owners, delegation of responsibilities leads to satisfactory projects. However, if the parties are inexperienced and do not cooperate, the transfer of control and risk can be disappointing. The owner may need to restructure his/her internal procedures to accommodate design-build approach. Compared to DBB, this involves a significantly different set of requirements and expectations for process, timelines and communications. A clear understanding and documentation of design-build processes enhances the quality of design-build projects

  19. Advantage of Design-Build Approach • Innovation and quality improvements through: - Alternative designs and construction methods suited to the contractor’s capabilities - Flexibility in the selection of design, materials, and construction methods. • Earlier schedule and cost certainty

  20. Disadvantage of Design-Build Approach • Reduced opportunities for smaller, local construction firms. • Fewer competitors and increased risk may result in higher initial costs. • Elimination of traditional checks and balances. Quality may be subordinated by cost or schedule considerations. • Less Engineer control over final design. • Higher procurement costs. • Traditional funding may not support fast-tracking construction or may require accelerated cash flow. • Accelerated construction can potentially overextend the workforce.

  21. Others Turnkey Turnkey Variations Direct Labor Approach. Construction management

  22. Turnkey • Turnkey adds to the design-builder’s responsibilities the operation and/or maintenance of the completed project. • Turnkey delivery has the potential for bringing a new project on line more quickly. • Three forms of turnkey project delivery: • Design-build-operate-transfer • Design-build-operate-maintain • Design-build-own-operate-transfer

  23. Turnkey Variation • Variations on turnkey add financing as a key component. While financing arrangements are unique for each project, developer financed projects generally resemble one of the turnkey delivery methods: • FDBT (Finance, design, build, transfer) • FDBOT (Finance, design, build, operate, transfer) • FDBOOT (Finance, design, build ,own, operate, transfer) • In each case, the transfer of the project occurs only after the developer’s interests and financial obligations have been satisfied.

  24. Assignment (1) Describe the turnkey methods, turnkey variation methods, direct labor approach, and construction management method, highlighting on advantage and disadvantage of each one.

  25. Lecture (3) The contract, and contract types, overview of the construction documents.

  26. Contract Definition Agreement of at least two parties with purpose of creating legal obligation between the parties and capable of being enforced by the court of law. Contract = offer + acceptance + consideration

  27. Introduction to contracts Why Use contract in construction: • Describe scope of work • Establish time frame • Establish cost and payment provision • Set fourth obligations and relationship • Minimize disputes • Improve economic return of investment

  28. Content of the contract • Identify the parties • Promises and responsibilities • Scope of work • Price and payment terms • Commercial terms and conditions • Project execution plan.

  29. Major Contract Types (traditional)

  30. Lump Sum Contract One price for the whole contract Lump sum includes costs plus overheads and profits Higher risk to contractor Price quoted is a guaranteed price as per contract documents. Payment based on a scheduled percentage scheme (monthly progress claims) The contractor is free to use means and methods to complete the work and responsible for proper performance Work must be well defined at bid time. Fully developed plans and specifications

  31. Lump Sum Contract/ advantage Low risk on the owner, Higher risk to the contractor Cost known at outset Contractor will assign best personnel Contractor selection is easy.

  32. Lump Sum Contract/disadvantage Changes is difficult and costly. Contractor is free to use the lowest cost of material equipment, methods.

  33. Unit Price • Quote Rates / Prices by units • No total final price • Re-negotiate for rates if the quantity or work considerably exceeds the initial target • Payment to contractor is based on the measure. • Unbalanced bids • Higher risk to owner • Ideal for work where quantities can not be accurately established before construction starts.

  34. Unit Price contract • Require sufficient design definition to estimate quantities of units • Contractors bid based on units of works • Time & cost risk (shared) • Owner : at risk for total quantities • Contractor : at risk for fixed unit price. • Large quantities changes (>15-25%) can lead to increase or decrease of unit price.

  35. Unit Price / Requirement Adequate breakdown and definition of work units Good quantity surveying and reporting system. Adequate drawings. Experience in developing BOQ Payment based on the measurement of the finished works. Quantity sensitive analysis of unit prices to evaluate total bid price for potential quantity variation.

  36. Unit Price / advantages Suitable for competitive bid Easy for contract selection Early start is possible Flexibility : quantities and scope can be easily adjusted

  37. Unit Price / disadvantages Final cost not known from the beginning (BOQ only is estimated) Staff needed to measure the finished quantities and report on the units not completed. Unit price sometime tend to draw unbalanced bid. (For Unit-Price Contracts, a balanced bid is one in which each bid is priced to carry its share of the cost of the work and also its share of the contractor’s profit. Contractors raise prices on certain items and make corresponding reductions of the prices on other items ,without changing the total amount of the bid)

  38. Cost Plus Actual cost plus a negotiated reimbursement to cover overheads and profit. different methods of reimbursement : Cost + percentage Cost + fixed fee Cost + fixed fee + profit-sharing clause. Higher risk to owner Compromise : guaranteed maximum price (GMP) reduces risk to owner while maintain advantage of cost plus contract. By using this type of contract the contractor can start work without a clearly defined project scope, since all costs will be reimbursed and a profit guaranteed.

  39. Cost + Percent of Cost Fee = percentage of the total project cost (Cost = $500.000,Fee = 2%)

  40. Cost + Fixed Fee Fee = percentage of the original estimated total figure Utilized on large multi-year jobs Ex: WW treatment plant Facility (Cost = $20 million, Fee = 1%) $20 Million 1% fee = $200,000 Million

  41. Cost Plus Fixed Fee Most common form of negotiated contracts COST = expenses incurred by the contractor for the construction of the facility Includes: Labor, equipment, materials, and administrative costs FEE = compensation for expertise Includes: profit

  42. Cost + Fixed Fee +Profit-Sharing Clause Rewards contractors who minimize cost Percentage of cost under GMP is considered profit and shared with the contractor Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP) % of profit sharing is specified in contract

  43. Cost + Fixed Fee +Profit-Sharing Clause variation of this type of contract is called a guaranteed maximum price (GMP). In this type of contract the contractor is reimbursed at cost with an agreed-upon fee up to the GMP, which is essentially a cap; beyond this point the contractor is responsible for covering any additional costs within the original project scope An incentive clause, which specifies that the contractor will receive additional profit for bringing the project in under the GMP.

  44. Construction Documents • Bidding requirements • Notice to Bidders • Instruction to Bidders • Proposal Form • Contract Documents • Contract Forms • Conditions of the Contract • Specifications • Drawings • Addenda • Change Orders • Agreement.

  45. Construction Documents • Construction Documents are defined as the written and graphic documents prepared or assembled by the A/E for communicating the design of the project and administering the contract for its construction. • 2 major groups • 1.Bidding Requirements • Used to attract bidders & explains bidding process • 2.Contract Documents • Legally enforceable requirements that become part of the contract • Include all construction documents except bidding forms


  47. CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTSBIDDING REQUIREMENTS • BIDDING REQUIREMENTS • Bidding Requirements are used to attract bidders and explain the procedures to be followed in preparing and submitting bids . • Bidding requirements help bidders follow established procedures and submit bids that will not be disqualified because of technicalities. They do not become part of the contract documents • Bidding documents • All of the construction documents issued to bidders before the signing of an owner-contractor agreement.

  48. Bid Package • Documents available to the contractor and on which he must make a decision to bid or not • A set of plans and technical specifications, Proposal form, general conditions, special conditions, • Description of the project to be constructed • Bid Package is prepared by:

  49. 2-1 Instruction to bidders It describe the scope of the bid, source of fund (if it is financed from other agency), fraudulent and fraud practices, eligible bidders, Eligible Materials, Equipment and Services, Clarification of Bidding Document, Site Visit, Pre-Bid Meeting, Amendment of Bidding Document