Unit 7 . Objective: We will discuss the concerns and interactions between the USA and American Indians from the 1930’s to present time. . Moving Forward. Reform of 1910’s (page 411) and prosperity of 20’s led to investigations of Indian affairs Merriam Report 1928 .
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Unit 7 Objective: We will discuss the concerns and interactions between the USA and American Indians from the 1930’s to present time.
Moving Forward • Reform of 1910’s (page 411) and prosperity of 20’s led to investigations of Indian affairs Merriam Report 1928. • Move forward, not back and attempt to reform. • Great Depression will further set back the cause of the American Indian. • Coolidge and Osage
John Collier • “Indian New Deal” • Looked to promote Indian society and culture • Day schools on reservations instead of boarding schools • More state involvement in Indian issues • (IRA 1934) Dawes Act repealed, allotments ended, tribal community land restored.
Movement and Termination • 1940’s and 1950’s called for 3 pronged program: • Compensation, termination, relocation • End all land disputes, turn Indian affairs to state and tribes, and relocate Indians to cities. • Finally totally weave Indians into mainstream America • “Wipe the slate clean”
Indian Claims Commission • Looked to pay for any ignored treaties from 1778 to 1871. • Tribes had to prove previous ownership, and where $ would go. • Led to tribal “membership” and “benefits” disputes, arguments over value of land, and bureaucratic red tape. • Took until 1978 to conclude, paid over 800$ million to tribes, some still dispute these decisions.
Termination (1950’s) • Movement to end federal gov’t involvement in Indian affairs for tribes who had made “progress”. • Passed off tribal obligations like health care and education to many states and tribes to save $, but most tribes crashed economically , lost huge chunks of land, and became dependant upon government welfare programs.
Termination Policy • The government believed that there were tribes that were ready to be part of main stream American society and no longer needed the protection of the federal government. Two tribes, the Klamaths who owned valuable timber property in Oregon and the Agua Caliente, who owned the land around Palm Springs were some of the first tribes to be affected by the policy. These lands, rich in resources, were taken over by the Federal Government. In 1953 Congress adopted an official policy of "termination" declaring that the goal was "as rapidly as possible to make Indians within the territorial limits of the United States subject to the same laws and entitled to the same privileges and responsibilities as are applicable to other citizens of the United States." (House Concurrent Resolution 108) • http://www.nrcprograms.org/site/PageServer?pagename=cin_hist_terminationpolicy
Relocation • WWII industry led many to leave rez, 1956 Relocation Act looked to capitalize on this. • By 1970 44% lived in cities, by 1980 over half did. • Became involved in 60’s culture and activism. • Problems? Benefits?
Political and Social Action/Change • Throughout 40’s, 50’s, 60’s lands were continually diminished by dams, strong arm tactics, political control of BIA, etc. new types of activism modeled after? • Wallace Mad Bear and nonviolent movement vs. NY • Movements brought together tribal members, increased pride, relocation programs led to urban populations growing more militant due to conditions/time.
Indian Militancy • 1961 Am. Indian Chicago Conf. led to Declaration of Indian Purpose. • NIYC exemplified youth movement, anger. • “We are not free” -Clyde Warrior • Pacific coast “fish-ins” indicative of civil disobedience • Formation of AIM and “Indian Patrols” in Minneapolis show the mobilization/radicalized new population. • Actor Marlon Brando and Puyallup tribal leader Bob Satiacum just before Brando's arrest during a fish-in, March 2, 1964Courtesy Seattle Post-Intelligencer
Activism Militancy • AIM / other movements used protest to further causes. Led to eventual violence. • ‘68 Inter. Bridge Blockade • ’69 Seizure of Alcatraz • 70 Thanksgiving “Mourning” • 71 Mt. Rushmore • 72 Trail of Broken Treaties and occupation of BIA building. Outcome of 20 points?
"High on a hill, overlooking the famed Plymouth Rock, stands the statue of our great Sachem, Massasoit. Massasoit has stood there many years in silence. We the descendants of this great Sachem have been a silent people. The necessity of making a living in this materialistic society of the white man caused us to be silent. Today, I and many of my people are choosing to face the truth. We ARE Indians! "Although time has drained our culture, and our language is almost extinct, we the Wampanoags still walk the lands of Massachusetts. We may be fragmented, we may be confused. Many years have passed since we have been a people together. Our lands were invaded. We fought as hard to keep our land as you the whites did to take our land away from us. We were conquered, we became the American prisoners of war in many cases, and wards of the United States Government, until only recently.
Siege at Wounded Knee • Policy failures led to increased radicalism / tension • Tension led to increased federal presence --> AIM and Means, Banks overtook Wounded Knee, est. own “nation” • Lasted 71 days until treaty was signed, not recognized. Peltier legacy. • Violence continued between Dick Wilson’s “goons” and activists until 1976.
Dick Wilson and BIA’s Power • Within three years of the Wounded Knee II siege, 69 members and supporters of AIM died violently on the reservation. Nearly 350 others were physically assaulted. None of their killers were convicted, and many of the cases were never investigated. Many AIM leaders were imprisoned. • http://www.pbs.org/itvs/alcatrazisnotanisland/activism.html
Legacy of AIM / Militantism • Two sides • Temporary coverage/ impact for cause. Violence wrong way, unproductive. No substance. • Renewed interest, pride in cultural heritage. Spawned new groups, many to reconnect to Indian heritage, etc.
Before AIM [American Indian Movement], Indians were dispirited, defeated and culturally dissolving. People were ashamed to be Indian. You didn't see the young people wearing braids or chokers or ribbon shirts in those days. Hell, I didn't wear 'em. People didn't Sun Dance, they didn't Sweat, they were losing their languages. Then there was that spark at Alcatraz, and we took off. Man, we took a ride across this country. We put Indians and Indian rights smack dab in the middle of the public consciousness for the first time since the so-called Indian Wars.... [AIM] laid the groundwork for the next stage in regaining our sovereignty and self-determination as nation, and I'm proud to have been a part of that.- Russell Means (Oglala Lakota)
Chapter 8 Nations within a Nation: Indian Country since 1980
A New Era • Changes at the BIA • Cobell v. Salazar • Sovereignty issues and challenges. • Population changes • Recognized and Nonrecognized tribes
Gaming on Indian Lands • Why? • Sovereignty and economic self-reliance is seen as only way to break poverty cycle. (60’s/70’s) • Economic opportunities limited in so many ways they turned to gaming (took page out of U.S. book) • How? • Seminoles in ‘79 w/ bingo led to Supreme Court ruling which led to California v. Cabazon • IGRA ‘88 allowed states/tribes to run casinos on lands • Federal v. State v. Tribal Sovereignty argument
Positives • Mississippi Choctaws one of 10 largest employers in Mississippi. • Seminole tribe purchased Hard Rock for 965 million in 2006. • California Tribes: 18 tribes own many casinos • Pequot's in Connecticut own Foxwoods/Mohegan Sun
Overall Benefits • Tribes receive $4 of every $10 that Americans wager at casinos. • Indian casinos earn $26.7 billion in 2008 revenues. • There are 425 Indian gaming facilities. • 240 tribes operate casinos. • Indian gaming operates in 28 states • 24 states allow full-scale Indian casinos, 4 allow only Class II casinos (bingo slots) • Indian casinos provide 712,000 jobs with $27 billion in wages • Indian gaming paid $10.8 billion in local, state and federal taxes in 2008. • Indian gaming pays $1.3 billion in taxes to federal, state, local governments. • Source: National Indian Gaming Commission www.nigc.gov
Connecticut Casinos Foxwoods (Pequot) Mohegan Sun (Mohegans)
Tribal Benefits • Economic freedoms lead to cultural awareness, programs, buildings, legal monies, etc. • State revenues in billions • Political power restored in states (p. 545 quote) • Guaranteed employment, health care, housing, government programs, education, etc for some of the tribes • 2007 took in more revenue than Vegas (26.7 Billion) • http://500nations.com/news/Indian_Casinos/20090603.asp
Mt. Pleasant MI, Ojibwa Nation Cultural Center Casino
Arguments Against • Who would argue against Indian gaming rights? • Local communities against traffic, influence, etc. • Other gaming entities (AC and Vegas) • Resentment and stereotypes • Indian Arguments Against? • Weariness of relationships with states/compromise of sovereignty • Vices and impact upon culture/tribe/reservations • Non-Indian involvement • Divisions within tribes and with other tribes
Green Bay, WI. Oneida Nation Gas station gambling Another gas station (7 casinos within reservation)
Confronting Modern Issues • Alcohol/Drugs • HIGH alcoholism rates health issues, depression. Meth use rising/effects • Combating addiction • Violence/Rape (start at 18:00) • Gangs • Repatriation: Returning bones/artifacts • Showed lack of humanity to Indians vs. Science/Research • 80’s began period of returning items, 1990 Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act.