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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. GENUS: BORDETELLA Prof. Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh. Small, Gram-negative coccobacilli Strict aerobes. X and V factors not required for growth Three species: B. pertussis , B. parapertussis B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella species.

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

GENUS:

BORDETELLA

Prof. Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

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Small, Gram-negative coccobacilli
  • Strict aerobes.
  • X and V factors not required for growth
  • Three species:
    • B. pertussis,
    • B. parapertussis
    • B. bronchiseptica
bordetella pertussis
Bordetella pertussis
  • Whooping Cough
    • Paroxysmal coughing
  • Require blood, or starch or charcoal for growth
    • Bordet-Gengou medium (BGM)
  • Strict aerobe
  • Optimal temp. > 35-36oC
antigenicity
ANTIGENICITY
  • 3 Major Agglutinogens >1, 2 and 3
  • Detected by using adsorbed, single-agglutinin sera
  • 3 serotypes pathogenic to man
    • Type 1,2
    • Type 1,3
    • Type 1,2,3
  • All 3 have a role in immunity
virulence factors
Virulence Factors
  • Pertussis toxin (PT):an exotoxin which enters target cells and activates their production of cAMP, a molecule that acts as a second messenger in cell protein synthesis regulation
  • Tracheal cytotoxin:causes ciliated epithelial cell destruction
  • Hemoagglutinin:a cell surface protein which helps the bacterium bind to the host cell surface
pathogenesis
PATHOGENESIS
  • highly contagious bacterium
  • Non-invasive disease
  • Man > only natural host
  • Incubation period >> 1-2 weeks
  • Enters respiratory tract via inhalation > binds to and destroys the ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea and bronchi.
  • Symptoms last for many weeks
laboratory diagnosis
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

1. Bacterial Culture:

  • Specimen:
    • Pernasal swab on flexible wire
    • Specimens on several successive days> higher isolation rates.
    • Transport media should not be used
  • Culture:
    • Immediately on BGM
    • Incubate for at least 1 week
  • Identification:
    • Serological
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2. Detection of Bacterial Antigens
  • Bordetella antigens in serum and urine using specific antiserum
  • Immunofluorescence Technique:
    • Bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions labelled with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum > examined with ultraviolet microscopy.

3. Detection of Bordetella Antibody:

  • Sera and nasopharyngeal secretions examined for Ab > Agglutination Tests, ELISA
treatment
TREATMENT
  • Erythromycin
    • For 2 weeks
    • May reduce the severity of illness if given before paroxysmal stage.
    • No clinical effect when the infection is established
    • May be given to protect non-vaccinated infants
control
CONTROL
  • Vaccination:
    • Safe and >90% effective.
    • Adsorbed vaccine (i.e. with adjuvant).
    • Contains all 3 agglutinogens.
    • Minimum 3 doses.
    • Minor adverse reactions:
      • Erythema and local swelling, slight feverishness
      • Possible neurological sequelae

- Acellular pertussis vaccine

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Bordetella parapertussis
    • a respiratory pathogen that can cause mild pharyngitis.
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica
    • a cause of pneumonia, otitis media, and other respiratory infections in animals.