the articles of confederation and the constitutional convention 1781 1788 n.
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The Articles of Confederation and the Constitutional Convention 1781 - 1788 . Weaknesses of the Articles. No power to tax No regulation of trade No executive branch No national courts Unanimous vote for amendments Only one vote per state (equal power) 9/13 to pass laws

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weaknesses of the articles
Weaknesses of the Articles
  • No power to tax
  • No regulation of trade
  • No executive branch
  • No national courts
  • Unanimous vote for amendments
  • Only one vote per state (equal power)
  • 9/13 to pass laws
  • “league of friendship”
  • States too powerful
shays rebellion 1786 87
Shays’ Rebellion 1786-87
  • Farmers losing homes
  • Unresponsive Mass. Legis.
  • High property taxes
  • High interest rates
  • Foreclosuresales
  • Farmers closed down courts
  • Plans to take weapons arsenal
  • Guilty of TREASON ..
  • Pardoned
  • Need for stronger (new) govt.
successes of the articles
Successes of the Articles
  • LAND ORDINANCE OF 1785
    • TOWNSHIPS 6 x 6 MILES
    • $1 PER ACRE
    • MONEY FOR EDUCATION
  • NORTHWEST ORDINANCE OF 1787
    • ORGANIZED GOVERNMENT
    • 5 STATES (INCLUDING ILLINOIS)
    • NO SLAVERY ALLOWED
the constitutional convention
The Constitutional Convention
  • To REVISE the Articles
  • Summer of 1787 (Philadelphia)
  • Secret meetings
  • George Washington- President
  • James Madison- main writer
  • Ben Franklin- oldest – glue – wit and humor
  • John Adams and T. Jeffferson absent
remember that time is money

Ben Franklin

"Remember, that time is money.”

"If Jack's in love, he's no judge of Jill's beauty."

"He that goes a borrowing goes a sorrowing."

"Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise."

"A penny saved is a penny earned."

"Fish and visitors smell in three days."

"Genius without education is like silver in the mine."

"Haste makes waste."

virginia plan
Virginia Plan
  • Madison’s proposal
  • Large state plan
  • Bicameral legislature
    • Representation based on population
    • Assembly elected by people
    • Senate chosen by Assembly
more on the va plan
more on the VA Plan
  • The legislature was very powerful
  • An executive to ensure the will of the legislature was carried out, and was so chosen by the legislature
  • Formation of a judiciary, with life-terms of service
  • The executive and some of the national judiciary would have the power to veto legislation, subject to override
  • National veto power over any state legislation
new jersey plan
New Jersey Plan
  • Small state plan
  • Unicameral legislature
  • Equal representation for states
hamilton s plan
Hamilton’s Plan
  • A bicameral legislature
  • The lower house, the Assembly, was elected by the people for three year terms
  • The upper house, the Senate, elected by electors chosen by the people, and with a life-term of service
  • An executive called the Governor, elected by electors and with a life-term of service
  • The Governor had an absolute veto over bills
  • A judiciary, with life-terms of service
  • State governors appointed by the national legislature
  • National veto power over any state legislation
great compromise
Great Compromise
  • BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE
  • SENATE – 2 PER STATE
  • HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
    • # Reps. based on population
    • Minimum of 1 Rep.
three fifths compromise
Three-fifths Compromise
  • How should slaves be counted for population purposes?
    • SOUTH: count all
    • NORTH: don’t count
  • 5 slaves = 3 people
  • DO THE MATH:
    • 1000 SLAVES = ???? PEOPLE
    • 25,000 SLAVES = ???? PEOPLE
the debate begins
The debate begins
  • 9 states had to approve Constitution
  • Two opposing groups:
    • Federalists (supporters of strong Constitution)
    • Anti-Federalists (against ratification)
      • NOT ENOUGH POWER FOR STATES
      • FED. GOVT. TOO STRONG
      • FEARED TAXATION POWER OF FED. GOVT.
      • NO “BILL OF RIGHTS”
      • WRITTEN BY THE WELL-TO-DO
      • FAVORED NORTHEASTERN STATES (TARIFFS)
  • 9 states ratified by 1788
  • All states by 1790