BF Skinner By: Bremely Karthigesu & LyanneGenerciran
Biography • Born: (March 20, 1904)Susquehanna, Pennsylvania • Died: (August 18, 1990) (aged 86)Cambridge, Massachusetts
Biography Cont’d • Burrhus Frederic Skinner was an • American Behaviourist • Author • Inventor • Social Philosopher • Poet
Schools Attended and Taught • He also attended Harvard University after receiving his B.A in English Literature in 1926 • Skinner received a PhD from Harvard in 1931, and remained there as a researcher until 1936 • He taught at the University of Minnesota and later at Indiana University, where he was chair of the psychology department from 1946–1947 • Then returning to Harvard University in 1948 – he remained there for the rest of his adult life.
B.F. Skinner Theory: Operant Conditioning
Theory Operant Cont’d • Operant Conditioning: • The method of learning using rewards and punishment on particular behaviours. • B.F. Skinner believed that people can be conditioned in certain ways when giving them rewards and punishments.
Theory Operant Cont’d • Reinforcing Stimulus: The stimulus that increases the operant (the reward) • Operant: The behaviour that occurs before the stimulus • A behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus results in an increased probability of that behavior occurring in the future.
A behavior followed by an aversive stimulus results in a decreased probability of the behavior occurring in the future. • Negative Reinforcement: Removal of an already active aversive stimulus • Behavior followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus results in an increased probability of that behavior occurring in the future.
Cause of Violence in the Society • Operant conditioning occurs in the rewarding and punishing children • Childhood experiences appears to be more powerful • When a child's action is followed by a reinforcing stimulus (reward), likelihood of the same behaviour is more • Children witness individuals who act aggressively and gets a reward from their environment. • Teaches children that “violent behaviour pays off”