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Radon in Air and Water, Building byMaadKanan Submitted to Prof. Isam Al-Ashqar
History 1900 Dorn discovers the emanation (Radon), in the uranium series 1901 Rutherford and Brooks demonstrate that radon is a radioactive gas. 1902 Thomson, discovers radon in tap water 1903 Rutherford and Soddy measured the half-life of the radium emanation as 30825 days 1909 Satterly, used charcoal to collect and measure the concentration of radium In the atmosphere 1913 Rutherford, described the properties of the emanations and that they only emit alpha particle 1913 Arnstein, identified squamous carcinoma of the lung in autopsy of a miner 1914 First use of radon for medical
Introduction: Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86 ,it is usually found in igneous soil,but in some cases, well water may also be a source of radon
-Radon is not produced as a commercial product. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas and comes from the natural breakdown (radioactive decay) of uranium. .
Chemical and physical properties • An odorless, tasteless, invisible gas • that mixes with air • -If condensing it transparent liquid and then turns into a solid • - Chemically inert & Active radiation- Heaviest noble gas with highest melting and boiling point- Highly soluble in non-polar solvents- Moderately soluble in cold water- Able to diffuse through rock and soil
Atomic Number: 86 Atomic Weight: 222 Melting Point: 202 K (-71°C or -96°F) Boiling Point: 211.45 K (-61.7°C or -79.1°F) Density: 0.00973 grams per cubic centimeter Period Number: 6 Group Number: 18 Number of Stable Isotopes: 0
Ionization Energy: 10.745 eV Group Name: Noble Gas Phase at Room Temperature: Gas
-It is inert to most common chemical reactions, such as combustion, because the outer valance shell contains eight electrons. This produces a stable - the outer electrons are tightly bound -Is a noble gas, radon is chemically not very reactive
Radon in waterRadon can also enter home through their water systems. Water in rivers and reservoirs usually contains very little radon, because it escapes into the air; so homes that rely on surface water usually do not have a radon problem from their water.. .
In big cities, water processing in large municipal systems aerates the water, which allows radon to escape, and also delays the use of water until most of the remaining radon has decayed.
Radon in my waterNot all drinking water contains radon. If your drinking water comes from surface water such as a river, lake, or reservoir. most radon that might be in the water will be released into the air before reaching your water supplier or home.
Such as a well that Radon is only a concern if your drinking water pumps water from an aquifer, though not all water from underground source contains radon
Radon in Air Breathing radon in indoor air can cause lung caner. People who smoke have an even greater risk. Radon in indoor air is the second leading cause of lung cancer. About 22,000 deaths a year in the U.S. are caused by breathing radon in indoor air. Radon can cause lung cancer in anybody, but people who smoke are at an increased risk.
particles that can get trapped in your lungs when you breathe it. As they break down further, these particles release small bursts of energy. This can damage lung tissue.
:Radon in the SoilRadon from the soil depends on several factors, including permeability and soil moisture, studies have estimated that about 10% of the radon generated in the meter closest to the surface of the soil.
health effects of radonThe radioactive decay of radon produces fast-moving subatomic particles that can damage living cells. They cannot penetrate skin from outside the body, but cause damage once within the body..
Health impacts are thus mainly due to alpha particle emissions from radon in air and radon progeny. As the particles pass through matter, they knock electrons off molecules, causing them to be broken and changed. Some of the changes can be harmful to living tissue. For example, Radiation effect of DNA molecule
:Detect of Radon Can detect degradation products of radon in the urine, blood and bone cells and lung. But unfortunately medical devices capable of detecting degradation products of radon is not available in most hospitals.
protect our Homes - Measuring rates of degradation products of radon in the air of the house by using detectors. - Non-use of building materials that contain granite and basalt rocks and flintor floor.
-Do not use water pumps from an aquifer for drinking and cooking - To bridge the cracks and fissures in the concrete floor of the buildings
-Spend less time in places where there is true radon wagging -Open all the windows of the house to the flow of outside air -Seal sinks to ensure that no gas leak -Stop smoking and urged people to stop Application :Radon was sometimes used in hospitals to treat cancer(Used in radiation therapy and who is using hot water pools where the radon concentration 4.5-6 kpq)
References  H. Mache. Uber die imGasteinerWasserenthaltene radioactive emanation . Physical. Zeitschrift 5/15, (1904a) 441-444.  H. Mache. Uber die radioktivitatderGasteinerThermen, Wiener Sitz.ber.Akad.d. Wiss, 113 (1904b) 1329-1352.  E. Rutherford and H.T. Brooks. The new gas from radium. Trans R. Soc, Canada 7:21, (1901).  E. Rutherford and F. Soddy. The radioactivity of thorium compounds. An investigation of the radioactive emanation. J. Chem Soc Transactions 81, 321-350, (1902)  E. Rutherford and F.Soddy. The radioactivity of thorium compounds.The cause and nature of radioactivity. J. Chem Soc Transactions 81, 837-860 (1902)  F.H. Harting and W. Hess. DerLungenkrebs, die Bergkrankheit in den Scheeberger Gruben , Vierteljahrsschr. f. gerichtl. Mee. U.offentel. Gesundheitwessen, N.F. 30: 296, 31: 102, 313 102(1879).