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Macromolecule Notes. General Vocabulary. Monomers: Subunits that make up larger molecules. “Parts that make up the whole” Polymers: A bunch of monomers all hooked together. The whole thing! Can you think of some examples?. Examples. Legos vs Legoland Bono vs U2

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general vocabulary
General Vocabulary
  • Monomers: Subunits that make up larger molecules. “Parts that make up the whole”

Polymers: A bunch of monomers all hooked together. The whole thing!

Can you think of some examples?

  • Legos vs Legoland
  • Bono vs U2
  • A cinderblock vs Hamilton High School
general vocabulary continued
General Vocabulary Continued
  • Dehydration Synthesis: Also known as CONDENSATION REACTION.
  • Used in anabolic reactions. (Anabolism, or biosynthesis, is the process by which living organisms synthesize complex molecules of life from simpler ones.)
  • amino acid + amino acid --> dipeptide + water
why was water formed during the reaction
Why was water formed during the reaction?
  • amino acid + amino acid --> dipeptide + water
  • In order to hook subunits together, they need to be able to share electrons. If there are no electrons to share, won’t/don’t need to share a bond, so by removing a –H from one subunit and –OH from another subunit, free electrons can now bond together. Monomers are now linked together by covalent bonds. The H and OH form water.
general vocabulary continued1
General Vocabulary continued
  • Polymerases: In the body, anabolic reactions are carried out by enzymes called polymerases.
hydrolysis process used to release monomers from the larger polymer
Hydrolysis: Process used to release monomers from the larger polymer
  • Used in catabolic reactions. ( Reactions which break down molecules.)
  • Water is used during the process to break the covalent links.
  • This leaves “unhappy” atoms with electrons to share, so…….
end of hydrolysis
End of Hydrolysis
  • Water breaks up into -H and –OH and attaches to make each side happy.
  • In the body, catabolic reactions are carried out by enzymes generally known as HYDROLASES
general vocabulary end
General Vocabulary End
  • Polymerization: Process that creates polymers from monomer subunits
  • Macromolecules: Organic molecules found in the body can be classified as one of four things: Proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids.
macromolecules continued
Macromolecules Continued
  • Macromolecules can be very LARGE molecules.
  • These are the “bricks and mortar” of our bodies… they make up all the cells and everything in them.
carbohydrate structure
  • Only made of Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  • The formula: Characteristics in 1:2:1 ratio
  • The names: most end in “OSE”
  • Shape: Hexagon shape, but check ratios. If not listed, each corner of the hexagon is a CARBON.
  • Monomer: Simple sugar/monosaccharide
  • Polymer: Polysaccharide.
types of carbohydrates
Types of Carbohydrates
  • A) Monosaccharide. (aka simple sugar) examples: glucose, fructose, galactose
  • Interesting notes: All of the above examples have the same molecular formula. So how are they different? The atoms are hooked together differently. These are called ISOMERS
types of carbohydrates cont d
  • DISACCHARIDES ( aka simple carbohydrate)
  • Examples: sucrose, maltose, lactose
  • POLYSACCHARIDES (aka complex carbohydrates)
  • Examples: Cellulose, glycogen, chitin, starch
  • All of those polysaccharide examples are made of polymers of glucose.
  • They differ in the way that the glucose molecules are attached.. Cellulose and chitin are STRUCTURAL polymers made with one type of glucose. Glycogen and starch are ENERGY polymers made with the other form of starch.
who cares
Who cares?
  • Cellulose and chitin are used in plants and animals for constructing cell walls and exoskeletons. We don’t have the enzymes that recognize how the glucose molecules are hooked together in this form so we don’t digest these forms!
testing for carbs
Testing for Carbs
  • 1) Iodine test
  • Indicates the presence of starch. A positive test turns purple
  • 2) Benedicts test
  • Indicates the presence of monosaccharides.
  • A positive test turns orangish
put it all together so far
Put it all together so far..
lipids structure
  • How can you tell a lipid apart from other molecules?
  • Made of Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen AND other elements… typically phosphorus and notrogen
  • Formula: No characteristic ratio
  • Names: No fancy way to tell
  • Structure: Each of the 3 classes has its own recognizable shape. (See types)
lipids cont d
Lipids (cont’d)
  • Monomers: ?
  • Polymers: Three kinds of polymers
  • A) fats
  • B) phospholipids
  • C) Steroids
types of lipids a fats
Types of LipidsA) Fats

Made by attaching the glycerol head to the 3 fatty acid tails (aka triglycerides)

  • Dehydration synthesis hooks the tails to the head
  • The fatty acid can be saturated or unsaturated depending on the presence or absence of double bonds.
  • Tails can be all saturated, all unsaturated or a combination.
types of lipids b phospholipids
Types of LipidsB) Phospholipids
  • Made by taking off one of the fatty acid tails and replacing it with a molecule known as a “phosphate group”.
  • By adding this group, a portion of the molecule becomes hydrophobic (the tails) and portion is now hydrophilic (the head). So what? Now this molecule can be used as a type of sack. When dropped in water, they form spheres with the heads facing the water and tails facing inside.
types of lipids c steroids
Types of LipidsC) Steroids
  • Made by combining tons of fatty acids into rings.
  • Characterized by looking for the fused rings: (Don’t worry about the numbers!)
testing for lipids
Testing for Lipids
  • 1) Emulsification Test: Forms two layers when heated in water and subsequently having ethanol poured in.
  • 2) Brown Paper Bag Test
  • 3) Sudan IV test: Turns red in the presence of a fat.
proteins structure
  • How can you tell proteins apart from other molecules?
  • Made of Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, etc
  • Formula: No characteristic ratio
  • Name: most end with “-in”
  • Structure: Look for the N-C-C
  • Monomer: Amino Acid
  • Polymer: Protein or polypeptide
proteins levels of organization
ProteinsLevels of Organization
  • 1) Primary structure: A simple chain of monomers. The order the amino acids line up is dictated by the DNA code.
  • 2) Secondary Structure: The chain starts to coil (aka Alpha helices) like a telephone cord. Other parts of the chain will accordion fold (aka beta-pleated sheets)
  • KEY Maintain shapes because parts of backbone forms H bonds. N from one amino group bonds to O in carboxyl group of the other amino acid
levels of organization cont d
Levels of Organization (cont’d)
  • 3) Tertiary Structure: The coils and pleats now start folding in on each other.
  • KEY: shape is maintained by bonding at the R group level! The hydrophobic amino acids will cause the protein to bend (during folding) away from the water. The hydrophilic ones won’t be bothered in the presence of water
levels of organization cont d1
Levels of Organization(Cont’d)
  • 4) Quarternary structure: Two proteins at the tertiary stage have combined.

Example: Hemoglobin

testing for proteins
Testing for proteins
  • 1) Buiret’s test: Turns a pretty purple if proteins are there.
nucleic acids structure
Nucleic AcidsStructure
  • Monomer: Nucleotides
  • Polymer: DNA or RNA
  • Testing? Don’t worry about it!