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Evolution has lead to a staggering variety or organisms

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Evolution has lead to a staggering variety or organisms Biologists have identified and named about 1.5 million species so far They estimate anywhere between 2 and 100 million additional species have yet to be discovered! Taxonomy is the science of classifying and naming organisms.

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slide1
Evolution has lead to a staggering variety or organisms
  • Biologists have identified and named about 1.5 million species so far
  • They estimate anywhere between 2 and 100 million additional species have yet to be discovered!
  • Taxonomy is the science of classifying and naming organisms
slide2
By the 18th century, European scientists recognized that referring to organisms by common names was confusing
  • Common names vary among regions within a country

Puma

Cougar

Mountain Lion

Panther

early efforts at naming organisms
Early Efforts at Naming Organisms
  • First attempts at standard scientific names often described physical characteristics
  • As a result, these names could be 20 words long!
  • Ex.) The English translation of the scientific name of a particular tree might be “Oak with deeply divided leaves that have no hairs on their undersides and no teeth around their edges.”
binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Carolus Linnaeus (18th Century)
  • Swedish Botanist
  • Developed a system for naming organisms
  • It is a Two word naming system
5 5 1 outline the binomial system of nomenclature
5.5.1 Outline the binomial system of nomenclature.

Rules for Binomial Nomenclature

  • Written in italics
  • First word is capitalized
  • Second word is lower case

Eg.

Genus species (often underlined)

Genus species -

G. species

slide8
The name often tells you something about the species
  • Eg. Tyranosaurusrex or T. rex means Tyrant Lizard King
  • Ursusarctos or U. arctos
  • Ursusmaritimus or U. maritimus
slide13
5.5.2 List seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa—kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species—using an example from two different kingdoms for each level Linnaeus’s system of classification uses seven taxonomic categories

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

species

Largest / Least Specific

Each level of

Organization is a taxon

(taxa-pl.)

Smallest / Most Specific

or perhaps
Or perhaps…….

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

species

  • King
  • Phillip
  • Came
  • Over
  • For
  • Good
  • Soup
slide17
5.5.2 List seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa—kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species—using an example from two different kingdoms for each level
slide21
5.5.3 Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features: bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophytaand angiospermophyta.
slide22
5.5.3 Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features: bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophytaand angiospermophyta.
slide23
5.5.3 Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features: bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophytaand angiospermophyta.

bryophyta: liverworts, hornworts and mosses

  • no roots, only structures called rhizoids, which resemble root hairs
  • no true leaves or stems, both lacking vascular tissue
  • maximum height = 0.5 m
  • reproductive structures: spores produced in capsules at the end of stalks
slide24
5.5.3 Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features: bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophytaand angiospermophyta.
  • filicinophyta: ferns
  • have true roots, leaves and non-woody stems, all containing vascular tissue
  • maximum height = 15 m
  • reproductive structures: spores produced in sporangia, usually on the underside of leaves
slide25
5.5.3 Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features: bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophytaand angiospermophyta.

coniferophyta: conifers

  • have roots, leaves and wood stems all containing vascular tissue
  • maximum height = 100 m
  • reproductive structures:
    • male cones produce pollen
    • female cones produce ovules on the underside of scales
    • seeds develop from fertilized eggs with in ovules
slide26
5.5.3 Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features: bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophytaand angiospermophyta.

angiospermophyta: flowering plants

  • have roots, leaves and stems all containing vascular tissue
  • maximum height = 100 m
  • reproductive structures:
    • flowers, containing female pistil and/or male stamen
    • male stamens produce pollen
    • female pistils produce ovaries containing eggs
    • seeds develop from fertilized eggs with in ovules
    • fruits develop from ovaries to disperse seeds
slide27
5.5.4 Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, molluscaand arthropoda.
slide31
5.5.4 Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, molluscaand arthropoda.

porifera: sponges

  • no clear symmetry
  • attached to a surface
  • pores through body
  • no mouth or anus
slide32
5.5.4 Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, molluscaand arthropoda.

cnidaria: corals, jellyfish, anemones

  • radial symmetry
  • tentacles
  • stinging cells
  • mouth, but no anus
slide33
5.5.4 Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, molluscaand arthropoda.

platyhelminthes: flat worms

  • bilateral symmetry
  • unsegmented, flat body
  • mouth, but no anus
slide34
5.5.4 Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, molluscaand arthropoda.

annelida: segmented worms

  • bilateral symmetry
  • segmented
  • mouth and anus
slide35
5.5.4 Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, molluscaand arthropoda.

mollusca: slugs, snail, clams, squids

  • muscular foot and mantle
  • shell usually present
  • segmentation not visible
  • mouth and anus
slide36
5.5.4 Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, molluscaand arthropoda.
  • arthropoda: insects, spiders, crabs, millipedes
  • bilateral symmetry
  • exoskeleton
  • segmentation
  • jointed appendages
5 5 5 apply and design a key for a group of up to eight organisms
5.5.5 Apply and design a key for a group of up to eight organisms.

Dichotomous Keys

  • a chart that branches 1 characteristic at a time in order to properly classify organisms
  • Eg. Distinguish between:

FLASK, BEAKER, TEST TUBE, GRADUATED CYLINDER, TUB

slide38
Each option should be an alternative between having a characteristic or not having it (i.e. has five fingers or does not have five fingers)
  • Eg.
slide39
OR

FLASK, BEAKER, TEST TUBE, GRADUATED CYLINDER, TUB

1.

a) glass Go to 2

b) not glass Go to 3

2.

a) has numbers Go to 4

b) no numbers TEST TUBE

3.

a) has numbers GRADUATED CYLINDER

b) no numbers TUB

4.

a) narrow opening FLASK

b) wide opening BEAKERS

slide42
Spider bite video:
  • Warning….really gross!!!!!

Day 6

Day 1

5 5 5 apply and design a key for a group of up to eight organisms1
5.5.5 Apply and design a key for a group of up to eight organisms.
  • Each question divides the group of organisms into two smaller groups based on a pair of alternative characteristics
  • the characteristic will be easily observed or measurable, like shape or number
  • Use species below to create a dichotomous key for the identification of these animals.
  • When complete give your key to another student to test.
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