DOS-RESPONSE JAPAN NUCLEAR RADIATION.
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Measuring the impact of nuclear activities begins with measuring the effluence from the industry into air and water and retained radioactive waste, the distribution of this debris in the biosphere over space and time; its uptake in the ecosystem and food web and its persistence in the biosphere; together with transfer factors in the environment; human uptake, physiological distribution in the body and biochemical properties; energy deposits; dose estimates to the public and workers; and the human and environmental health implications of this exposure. Some method for quantifying the impact on living systems is necessary to relate concentration levels to health effects.
The Fukushima Disaster
Risk assessment matrix for oil spill
Balsher Singh Sidhu (2009CE10292)
Smit Gupta 2009CE(10344)
BY DEVENDER KUMAR AND GROUP MEMBERS.
CAUSE OF MINAMATA DISEASE WAS METHYL MERCURY POISIONING IN MINAMATA BAY IN JAPAN AND RESULTS IN MINAMATA DISEASE TO LACALITY PEOPLE.
1. - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION :- SINCE IT WAS OFFICIALLY DISCOVERED IN 1956 THAT DANGEREOUS MINAMATA DISEASE WAS CAUSED BY METHYL MERCURY POISIONING AND NEEDS A WAY TO COME OUT.
SO THERE WAS NO ISSUE OF IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARD CAUSED BY METHYL MERCURY POISIONING.
THERE WAS TOTAL OF APPROX. 2000 PATIENTS WERE IDENTIFIED AND LATOR ON THAT WAS CONTINUED BECAUSE OF UN AWARENESS OF THEIR GOVERNMENT.
2.EXPOSURE ASSESMENT:- ACCORDING TO AVAILABLE DATA AROUND 67% LOCALITY PEOPLE WAS INFECTED. SO ON AN AVERAGE 65% TIME IN A YEAR POPULATION WAS IN EXPOSURE OF METHYL MERCURY.
The influence of age and sex on the threshold dose of mercury in Minamata disease was studied by dose-response analysis based on mercury concentrations in hair obtained mainly from adults living near the Agano River at the beginning of Niigata Minamata disease outbreak in 1965.
The subjects were 174 male and 694 female inhabitants of polluted areas including 55 males and 66 females officially recognized as Minamata disease patients.
Symptoms were ataxia, numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, narrowing of the field of vision and damage to hearing and speech. In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. A congenital form of the disease can also affect foetuses in the womb.
One-compartment model is widely used in the EPA for the following reasons:
1 Methylmercury exposure via foods is continuous and relatively stable.
2 Methylmercury is not unevenly distributed to a specific organ in the body.
3 Methylmercury is difficult to metabolize (into inorganic compounds) in the body
Daily methylmercury intake d (μg/kg bw/day), which becomes C (the blood mercury level) (μg/L) in the steady state, is calculated using the following formula:
Maternal daily methylmercury intake: d (μg/kg bw/day)
d =C × b × V/A × f × bw
b = elimination rate constant= 0.014 per day
bw = body weight =60kg
V = blood volume= 0.09×60liters
A = fraction of the dose absorbed=0.95
f = the absorbed fraction distributed to the blood =0.05
10 ppm was taken as the NOAEL and the RfD came out to be 2.0μg/kg bw/week of Hg by using the following formula:
RfD = NOAEL/VF1*VF2*…VFn
where VF is the variance factor.
ONE COMPARTMENT MODEL IS FITTED TO ANALYSE IT.
In order to understand the level or magnitude of risk associated with the disease and to create a clear risk perception, it’s good to evaluate it using the following major dimensions:
Catastrophic potential- Besides the direct damage to nature and people’s bodies, the damage brought to Minamata by pollution is incalculable.
Familiarity- Minamata Disease was reported by the Chisso Corporation Hospital as a strange disease of unknown cause, and was officially discovered in May, 1956.
Voluntariness- Since the disease reaches a human body with unconscious ingestion of Methyl mercury poisoned media(food and water), the infection is involuntary
Origin- As it is indicated before, the disease is caused by human actions or failures
Effects on future generations- Minamata disease is not a hereditary disease. If proper care is in place its effect on future generation is rare.
KARISHMA BHATNAGAR 2012CEV2274
MEGHA KANOJE 2012CEV2283
SADAF NOORUDHEEN 2012CEV2279
BIKRAM SINGH 2012CEV2285
The main objective – compare concentrations of metal contaminants present in the Yamuna water (Delhi) with the permissible limits & do risk assessment.
Area of study-Yamuna River between Wazirabad barrage and Okhla barrage because drains between them contribute 80 % of total pollution load.
The steps done -Hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose – response assessment, risk characterisation, risk management, risk communication
The metal concentrations in the specific region of Yamuna were obtained.
Possible exposure routes are: Ingestion: finished drinking water, Accidental ingestion during recreational activities, Food pathway: consumption of fishes, vegetables grown on the banks, River bathing and washing.
Exposed Population- blood lead level when exposed to Yamuna bank area -8 times that in rural area .
Chronic Daily Intake=(CW*IR*EF*ED)/(BW*AT); HQ>1 – risk present.
Objective-Educating target audience, health professionals, municipal Corporation, improving the quality of information in public domain on the issue.
Methods-putting some hoardings near polluted zones, distributing pamphlets, brochure etc to people residing by the river.
Risk assessors -Analyse are in terms of cost effectiveness.
“RISK ASSESSMENT ON BOMBAY HIGH OIL SPILL”
Manish Bhardwaj 2011AST3530
Rahul Saini 2011AST3566
Amrendra Kumar 2011AST3564
Pawan Pal 2011AST3563
Rajeev K Singh 2011AST3572
Karanjeet Singh 2011AST3578
Bombay high field discovered in 1974 and it is located in Arabian sea 160 km west of the Mumbai coast.
The oil operations are run by Oil & Natural gas Corporation.
The rupture in pipeline in Bombay high was on 17 may 1993 which results in spillage of crude oil.
The exact amount of oil spill is not known, thus spilling roughly expected 3000-600 tonnes of oil into the sea.
Oil continued to leak out of the pipeline at the rate of around three barrels per minute.
To identify immediate change if any in marine environmental quality of Murud in the event of pollution by petroleum hydrocarbon residue.
Water samples were collected at different depths for dissolved-dispersed petroleum hydrocarbon residues (DPH) using Niskin water samplers
All the water samples were analysed for their DPH by spectrofluorometry after preconcentration by hexane extraction.
Result quality of Murud in the event of pollution by petroleum hydrocarbon residue.
The sizes of oil patches were estimated to vary between 1x 0·5 m to 10 x 2m. Only onepatch of untreated oil (about 100 x 2 m) was observed
Aerial survey carried out on 25 May however showedseveral oil patches of varying sizes drifting towards thecoast of Murud-Zanzira, south of Bombay.
Table 1:: Comparison of data of floating tar ball and DPH concentration
Table 2::Data on chl a, phaeophytin and primaryproductivity in the oil spill area.
Observational Impact in the oil spill area.
Localized impacts in terms of decrease in its rate of primary productivity and changes in the composition of zooplankton were evident . The beach tar melted under the summer heat and percolated into the sand spreading the contamination at least up to 5 cm below surface.
GUIDED BY SUBMITTED BY Dr. ARUN KUMAR RAVEEN PPATEL (ENTRY NO.-2012CEW2296)
AMIT KUMAR VYAS (ENTRY NO.-2012CEW2289)
PARAG AGRAWAL (ENTRY NO.-2012CEW2292)
HARSHA YADAV (ENTRY NO.-2012CEW2297)
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY –DELHI
The incident took place in the mid night of 3rd December 1984. It was one of the greatest industrial disaster ever happened. During the incident 40 tones of MIC ( methyl isocyanate ) and various products such as mono –methyl amine , hydrogen cyanide and other lethal gases were released from UNION CARBIDA CORPORATION pesticide factory in Bhopal, India which flooded the atmosphere of Bhopal.The immediate effects on the people due to the exposure were vomiting, headache, burning of lungs and searing in their eyes. Within 72 hours of the incident about 8,000 people had died and total of 25,000 have since died due the released gases.
Dose response assessment
Effect On society:-
After 28 years after the bhopal gas tragedy the victims continue to suffer from problems like mental retardation cerebral palasy and multiple disabilities.
Economically they became very week only 70% of the exposed population were earning minimal wages.
Ground water became polluted as tones of toxic substance are underlying under ground.
It was noticed that a large amount of heat was generated during the release of MIC. It is known that MIC reacts with moisture rapidly. In addition, MIC could have undergone a series of chemical reactions.
They are still carrying the load of the past hazzards on their shoulders.
Hazard identification: During this disaster various gases like CO, HCL, CO2, HCN, Mono Methyl Amine, MIC(methyl isocyanate) were released. Incident took place mainly due to release of MIC and its reaction products. Having such a pressure that it rises up to 33 meter from the ground. Due to prevailing wind and temperature conditions the gas was taken from release valve to the residential areas of the city.
Exposure assessment:. Initially it was due to respiratory tract and eyes, and for long term it was through the GI tract from ingestion of food and water. A number of contaminants still remain on site. So it would be difficult to link an illness specially to MIC leak exposure. The leak itself lasted for 90 minutes. However the gas remained in the area for many hours after the leak. Between 210-270 min after the release of the gas, it mixed with the air, cooler and descended on the city still moving downwind.
Dose response: After lot of studies it has been found that MIC(methyl isocyanate) is of non-carcinogenic nature. CalEPA(California Environmental Protection Agency) calculated a chronic inhalation reference exposure level of 0.001 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3).
Refrence limit/refrence dose:A chronic non-cancer Reference Exposure Level (REL) of 3.6 x 10-1 µg/m3 is listed for methyl isocyanate in the California Air Pollution Control Officers Asociation.
Symptoms may include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, watery eyes, eye pain (particularly when exposed to light), profuse lid edema, and corneal ulcerations. Respiratory symptoms such as pulmonary edema and bronchial spasms may occur in immediate response to exposure or develop and progress in severity over a period of hours to days post-exposure.
Risk characterization: SEVERE EFFECTS:
Initial effects of exposure were:Coughing,Vomiting, Severe eye irritation, Feeling of suffocation
Acute symptoms were:-Burning in the respiratory tract and eyes,Blepharosphasm,Breathlessness,Stomach pains and vomiting.
Causes of death were:Reflexogenic circulatory collapse,Pulmonary oedema,Tubular necrosis of kidney,Fatty degeneration of liver.
Risk management:It was suggested to people to close there windows and doors and spread the water to their floors and lay down on the floor. The State Government established a number of hospitals, clinics and mobile units in the gas-affected area to cure the victims.
Name Entry Number
Arnav Kumar Guha 2012CEV2268
Samarpreet Singh 2012CEV2270
Swaagat Das 2012CEV2275
Dheeraj Chaudhary 2012CEV2284
Govind Narain 2012CEV2280
Neeraj Golhani 2012CEV2281
Oil spill is release of liquid petroleum, hydrocarbon into the ocean or coastal waters, due to human activity, mainly:
Sinking or leakage of oil carrying vessels or oil pipelines.
Countries at war
Illegal damping by industries
The oil spill basically covers the surface of water by a thick film and thereby
Effects the entire marine life
Fishes die, because they cannot breathe
Nature takes up to 10years to recover. if oil reaches the sea beds
Our study will focus on risk assessment due to oil spill and taking BP’s oil spill’s as a prime case example. The study will be having following steps:
Fault Tree of a oil spill in the oil spill area.
Location of risk in factor space (based on Slovic et.al)
Frequency analysis is important as it enables us to estimate the probability of another oil spill based on trends of spill accidents in time for example the following graph [Source :www.itopf.com/stats.html ] shows that in the coming decades the number of spill will be less than 7.3 spill per ten year:
Figure 3:International Oil spill trends
The main part of risk communication includes bridging the gap between the actual facts and scientific revelations with the perception of the people to be affected.
In case of oil spills, the risk communication should primarily include:
Term Paper Report: Environmental Risk Assessment (CEL899)
Hazard Identification : Lubricating oilThe major detrimental effects of the metal working fluids were taken from the article published by NIOSH in 1998.
Direct exposure measurement of metal working fluids on skin and through inhalation: Data were taken from B van Wendel de Joode, et al. Three methods were used for this study conducted on 80 metal workers.
Video imaging technique for assessing dermal Exposure (VITAE)
Surrogate Skin Technique (Pads method )
Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM)( Semi- Quantitative)
The average exposure concentration on the Skin from VITAE method was found to be 1354mg/hr and from Pads method it was 3706mg/hr. DREAM as a pessimistic method came up with the value 14985 mg/hr(which was used for this paper) and the air borne inhalation rate was found to be 0.63 mg/m3.
Dose–response assessment and risk characterization Lubricating oil: As a general approach Compound A has been identified having a concentration of 2% in the Metal working fluid.
Average daily dose = 8hrs* 14985 Mg/hr* 0.02/ 70 kg= 34.25 mg/kg/day
Hazard quotient (HQ) = ADD/Rfd= = 34.25 (mg/kg/day)/ 2(mg/kg/day)= 17.125
The incremental risk of cancer=[(8hrs* 14985 Mg/hr* 0.02*250*5years)/ (70 kg*365* 70years)] * 1(mg/kg/day)-1 = 1.68
The risk of the aerosol mist for a worker = 0.63 mg/m3/0.4mg/m3=1.57 (0.4mg/m3 is the allowable concentration)
There are four ways for managing these risks were proposed by NIOSH: (1) safety and health training, (2) worksite analysis, (3) hazard prevention and control, and (4) medical monitoring of exposed workers.
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS Lubricating oil
The failure probability of the top event P = (P1* P2* P3)+( P4* P5)+ ( P7+ P8)+ (P9* P10)+ (P11* P12)+( P6)
Reliability Block Diagram Lubricating oil
So the overall reliability of the system
S = (1- (1-S1)(1-S2)(1-S3))*(1-(1-S4)(1-S5))*S7*S8*(1-(1-S9)(1-S10))*(1-(1-S11)(1-S12))*S6
S = (1-P1*P2*P3) *(1-P4*P5)(1-P6)* (1-P7)* (1-P8)* (1-P9*P10)* (1-P11*P12)
Zone I :cutting zone where the cutting fluid is applied as spraying, dropping or flooding
Zone II equipments, helping and machining tools, clamping devices, material handling devices, storage devises etc :
Zone III : far away area from cutting zone, other departments in the shop, offices etc
GAYATHRI KRISHNA K (CEW122291)
PONNI MARIET GEORGE (CEW122293)
VILAKSHNA PARMAR (CEW122287)
SANDHYA GUPTA (CEV122276)
SOWJANYA UPPULURI (CEW122288)
SYEEDAH RAAZIA (CEW122290)
Use of endosulphan in Kasaragod district of Kerala.
Endosulfan is a pesticide used to control insects on food crops.
It is a chlorinated pesticide (C9H6Cl6O3S) of the cyclodienegroup.
It has two stereo isomers alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan in an approximate ratio of 70:30.
Endosulfan was aerially sprayed for period of 25 years by Plantation Corporation of Kerala (PCK).
Health effects:- deaths, retarded growth and mental illness.
Effects on animals, biodiversity and ecology of the area.
1- Hazard Identification
2- Exposure Assessment
3- Dose Response Assessment
4- Risk Characterization
5- Risk Management
6- Risk Communication
Risk management includes social, economic, political and engineering issues.
management system should be such that unacceptable risk is brought to acceptable riskwith alternatives and minimal cost.
Hoardings, Pamphlet, Radio telecast, Programs on national television, Newspapers and articles, Working with the media, Social service schemes.
ENVIRONMENT RISK ASSESSMENT Lubricating oil
DUE TO CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT
SAUJANYA KUMAR SAHU 2012CEW2286
ARVIND KUMAR BAIRWA 2012CEW2302
RAHUL GAUTAM 2012CEW2301
Occurred on 26th April 1986 at reactor No. 4 of nuclear power plant at Chernobyl.
The operators switched off an important control system -> reactor reached unstable state -> A sudden power surge -> steam explosion -> rupture of reactor vessel -> destruction of reactor core and reactor building.
Intense graphite fire -> release of radioactive materials like 131I and137Cs
Regions affected - Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
Step 1: Hazard Identification:
Step 2 : Exposure Assessment :
Step 3 : Dose response
where Da= the absorbed dose in air ; Fk=the conversion factor, Li,k=location factor ; Bi,k=the occupancy factor,
D =the thyroid dose; n = the age of the individual (years); K = scaling parameter
Step 4 : Risk Characterization
Step 5 : Risk Management and Communication
Event Tree for Release of Nucleotides at Chernobyl Disaster Lubricating oil
Preventive Aids present
Preventive Aids absent
Control Systems working
Operator turned off important switch
Building not damaged
Control Systems not working
Sudden Power Surge
Reactor Core destroyed
Building not damaged
Reaction vessel ruptured
Reactor Core intact
Reaction vessel intact (not ruptured)
Fault Tree for Release of Nucleotides at Chernobyl Disaster Lubricating oil
Release of Radio nuclides
Reaction Core Destroyed
Control System failure
Prevention aids absent
Sudden Power Surge
Sudden Power surge
Reaction building damage
Rupture of reactor vessel
Reaction building damage
Operator turned off important switch
Reaction building damage
Control system not working properly
Reliability Block Diagram of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Lubricating oil
No manual flaws (A`)
Operator didn't turn off imp. Switch (D`)
No design Flaws (G`)
Proper Maintenance (B`)
Reactor vessel intact (H`)
Control system working (E`)
Preventive aids present
Reactor core intact (I`)
Building not damaged (F`)
Here A : Failure event A` : Success event
A` : No Manual Flaws F` : Building not damaged
B` : Proper Maintenance G` : No Design Flaws
C` : Preventive Aids Present H` : Reactor vessel intact
D` : Operator didn’t turn off switch I` : Reactor core intact
E` : Building not damaged
accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, a tragic event. Many lost lives and still a many suffering from radiation hazards.
necessary to expand research of long term effects of the acute radiation sickness to support survivors.
Its findings ;methods developed to combat and manage radiation hazards can be readily applicable to disaster of similar kind,e.g. Fukushima Diiachi nuclear disaster
Need to generate positive public opinion about harnessing of clean nuclear energy.
TROPITA PIPLAI- 2012CEZ8079
AGNES SHIJI JOY-2011CEV2845
An analysis was done to study and quantify the Microbial Risk Analysis of the selected Sewage Treatment Plants (STP’s) based on the five step methodology.
The objective of this study is to perform a
Microbial Risk Analysis of the selected Sewage Treatment Plants
Identification and Solutions applicable to these risks
Management and Communication of these risk effectively
The limitation of our study we have conducted on are
Of the many pathogens only 3 commonly found pathogens were considered
Ingestion route was considered as the mode of infection
The effects was considered on specific sub populations
Awareness study was evaluated on students
Delhi was taken as the study area
Site-Description: Two Sewage Treatment Plants has been selected for our study having different treatment methods.
NOIDA: It is a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) based STP having a capacity of 27MLD.It was started in March 2012 and its source of water in the treatment plant is completely domestic.
VASANT KUNJ: It is based upon Extended Aeration Process and has a capacity of 22.7 mld and flow of 18.16 mld. The source of water in the treatment plant is completely domestic.
The reference risks of the micro organisms which we are studying, as per the U.S.EPA are:
Salmonella – 0.0001; Shigella – 0.0001; E.coli – 0.0001
The Hazard Quotient is calculated by dividing the Annual risk calculated (both Exp and Poisson) by the reference risks listed by US EPA. If the Hazard Quotient is above 1, a definite step has to be taken towards improving the whole scenario as the situation is definitely at risk. If it less than 1, then the situation is under control and not at risk.
The most common pathways for these pathogens to enter the human body are ingestion, inhalation and dermal, can be listed as:
From the previous table it can be seen that,
“Workers working in WWTP’s”; “Children playing”; “Recreational Activities” are at RISK from SALMONELLA.
“Workers working in WWTP’s”; “Recreational Activities” are at RISK from SHIGELLA.
“Workers working in WWTP’s”; “Recreational Activities” are at RISK from E.COLI.
Also Ingestion through swimming (Recreation) case needs to be addressed with top priority for both Salmonella and Shigella as it poses maximum risk the concern population.
Risk Communication and Management
Based on a student survey conducted in the campus,
Most of the students rank all the above diseases between 2 to 6.5 and considered as dread.
As expected the most fimiliar disease was diarrhoea.
Unlike expected most of the students did not consideres Hepatitis as a dreadful disease.
Most of the students were fimiliar with urinary tract infection and did not considered it very dreadful.
People had very little knowledge about Salmonellas and Neonatal meningitis. And considered these diseases as dreadful.
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AND MANY MORE……………………..