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An Introduction to Metadata by Wendy Duff. ECURE 2000 October 6, 2000. Metadata. The term "meta" comes from a Greek word that denotes something of a higher or more fundamental nature. Metadata, then, is data about other data.

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An Introduction to Metadata by Wendy Duff

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  • The term "meta" comes from a Greek word that denotes something of a higher or more fundamental nature. Metadata, then, is data about other data.
  • The term refers to any data used to aid the identification, description and location of networked electronic resources
defining metadata
Defining Metadata
  • Does data about data mean anything?
    • Librarians equate it with a complete bibliographic record
    • Information technologists equate it to database schema or definitions of the data elements
    • Archivists include context information, restrictions and access terms, index terms, etc.
bibliographic metadata
Bibliographic Metadata
  • Providing a description of the information package along with other information necessary for management and preservation
  • Encoding
  • Providing access to this description
  • Predominantly discovery and retrieval
  • Surrogate records are encoded by assigning tags, letter, or words
  • Why encode?
  • For display
  • Provide access
  • Integration of surrogates
beyond discovery and retrieval
Beyond Discovery and Retrieval
  • Gilliland-Swetland (1998) explains “metadata also documents how that objects behaves, its functions and use, relationship to other objects and how it should be managed”.
different communities different metadata
Different Communities ….Different Metadata
  • Developers of the Interoperabilty of Data in E-Commerce Systems (indecs) ideintified metadata for protecting intellectual property rights of creators and publishers.
  • The Research Library Group’s Working Group on Preservation Issues of Metadata identified metadata for “digital master files that have preservation-based intent”.
metadata to information technologists
Metadata to Information Technologists
  • The data that defines the data elements in a table
  • Data that controls or explains other data
  • Something that is not part of the bit stream of a record but needed to understand the data in the record
  • One systems metadata is another systems data
source of metadata
Source of Metadata
  • Automatically generated
  • Supplied by creator of electronic resource
  • Supplied by 3rd party
dublin core
Dublin Core
  • Metadata to improve information retrieval of internet resources
  • Developed predominantly by the bibliographic community. Elements similar to bibliographic surrogate
characteristics of dublin core
Characteristics of Dublin Core
  • Simplicity
  • Semantic Interoperability
  • International Consensus
  • Extensibility
  • Metadata Modularity on the Web
dublin core elements








Intellectual Property





Dublin Core Elements
dublin core element
Dublin Core Element
  • Instantiation
    • Date
    • Format
    • Identifier
    • Language
resource description framework rdf
Resource Description Framework(RDF)
  • RDF provides interoperability between applications that exchange machine-understandable information on the Web
metadata and xml
Metadata and XML
  • Provides a means of encoding and exchanging metadata
xml example
XML Example
  • <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <!DOCTYPE FAQ SYSTEM "FAQ.DTD"> <FAQ>
  • <AUTHOR> Lars Marius Garshol</AUTHOR>
  • <DATE> 20.jun.97 </DATE>
  • </INFO> <PART NO="1"> <Q NO="1"> <QTEXT>What is XML?</QTEXT> <A>SGML light.</A> </Q> ...</PART> </FAQ>
electronic records metadata project
Electronic Records Metadata Project
  • Functional Requirements for Evidence in Recordkeeping
  • The SPIRT Metadata Project
  • VERS
  • GILS - and the AGLS
functional requirements for evidence in recordkeeping metadata model
Functional Requirements for Evidence in Recordkeeping Metadata Model
  • Six Layers
    • Handle Layer
    • Terms and Conditions Layer
    • Structural Layer
    • Contextual Layer
    • Content Layer
    • Use History Layer
victoria recordkeeping model
Victoria Recordkeeping Model
  • VERS is an exchange standard that allows transfer of metadata (and content) from the system it was created in to future systems as yet unbuilt.
  • A VERS Encapsulated Object (VEO) – a record – is designed to be self documenting so that the record can subsequently be extracted without reference to external documentation.
encapsulated object
Encapsulated Object
  • A VEO includes metadata that supports the management, finding, and retrieval of the electronic record.
  • A VERS record contains one or more documents, each of which may be stored as one or more encodings (physical file formats).
metadata facts to remember
Metadata Facts to Remember
  • Metadata does not have to be digital
  • Metadata relates to more than the description of an object.
  • Metadata can come from a variety of sources
  • Metadata continue to accrue during the life of an information object or system.
  • One information object's metadata can simultaneously be another information object's data.(Anne Gilliland-Swetland, Setting the Stage)
developing metadata schemes
Developing Metadata Schemes
  • Identify the purpose of the metadata model
  • Level of specificity of the elements
  • Identify resources
  • Infrastructure - who will supply it?
  • What type of information package is it?
  • Who will use the metadata?
  • Existing metadata models
other sources
Other Sources
  • Introduction to Metadata: Pathways to Digital Information.
  • CLIR Reports
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources
  • Australian Government Locator Service (AGLS) Metadata Standard.
more sources
More Sources
  • SPIRT Recordkeeping Metadata Project