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Riesgos, oportunidades y beneficios de la biotecnología para los países de las Américas. Greg Traxler Auburn University

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riesgos oportunidades y beneficios de la biotecnolog a para los pa ses de las am ricas

Riesgos, oportunidades y beneficios de la biotecnologíapara los países de las Américas

Greg Traxler

Auburn University

El Foro Técnico “Riesgos, oportunidades y beneficios de la biotecnología para los países de las Américas” --convocado por el Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura (IICA) el martes 11 de diciembre, 2007

outline
Outline

Introduction

The context and experience of Biotechnology in LAC

A model of biotechnology research and access

The Risks: Necessary Institutions and Institutional Capacity in LAC

Conclusions

opportunities what is biotechnology
Opportunities: What is Biotechnology?
  • GMOs
    • Most visible (notorious) aspect
    • Widespread public interest; concern from some
    • Most studied aspect of biotechnology; most data
    • Focus of this presentation
  • Molecular Techniques for Genetic Improvement
    • Marker Assisted Selection, cellular biology
  • Vaccines and Diagnostic Tools for Animal agriculture
  • Advances in Basic Science
    • New avenues of science; new scientific horizon
slide4

LAC had 78% of the total DC GMO area in 2006Near doubling in GMO area in 5 years, Use still concentrated in temperate/subtropical South Cone

slide5

Average number of chemical pesticide applications

12

10

Total

BBW

8

Other

Number of pesticide applications

6

Farmers

84%

4

2

0

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Year

GMO Impact studies have been completed in more than a dozen countries

Findings consistent in reporting:

Large economic and environmental benefits, large benefits to farmers

Benefit distribution,

1997-1998

Monsanto

16%

Source: Traxler, et al., 2004

Pesticide use and benefit distribution from Bt cotton in Mexico

slide6

Broad Summary on GMO impacts:

A Paradox

Large benefits from GMOs

Economic benefits broadly distributed among producers and industry

Large Environmental Benefits from reduced pesticide use and facilitation of reduced tillage

But …

High geographic and crop concentration in access to GMOs

Three crops

Seven countries out 34 in LAC

What guidance does this paradox give for accessing the potential of biotechnology science?

slide8

A three step model to analyze biotec Risks and Opportunities

Genetic Improvement Research & Technology Roles

Technology Delivery

Applied & Adaptive

Research

Basic Science

Seed Distribution

Low

High

Research cost and Spillover potential

Spillover definition:

The use of technology that was developed elsewhere,

thereby avoiding or reducing R&D investment costs.

Example: RR soybean in Argentina developed in US

slide9

Genetic Improvement Research & Technology Roles

Technology Delivery

Applied & Adaptive

Research

Basic Science

Seed Distribution

Institutions with primary responsibility for research in each area:

Multinationals

CGIAR Centers

NARSs

Local private sector

Farm input companies

Large NARSs

Regional networks, etc.

Indust. Country R&D

Farmer-Farmer

slide10

Genetic Improvement Research & Technology Roles

Technology Delivery

Applied & Adaptive

Research

Basic Science

Seed Distribution

Institutions with primary responsibility for research in each area:

Multinationals

CGIAR Centers

NARSs

Local private sector

Large NARSs

Farmer-Farmer

Regional mechanism, etc.

Indust. Country R&D

Critical Institutional Capacities for biotechnology

  • Basic Science capacity
  • Applied Science capacity
  • Biosafety Regulatory institutions
  • Investment Capital
  • IPR institutions / incentives for technology sharing
the risks necessary institutions and institutional capacities in lac
The Risks: Necessary Institutions and Institutional Capacities in LAC
  • Basic Science Capacity
  • Applied (agricultural) science capacity
  • Biosafety regulatory institutions
  • Research Investment capital
    • Public sector
    • Private sector
  • IPR institutions / financial incentives for technology discovery
slide12

Tremendous Diversity in Size of LAC Systems, 1996

  • Three countries account for 85% of LAC expenditures
  • 2/3 have less than 100 agricultural scientists

Mexico

Argentina

Brazil

Source: Beintema and Pardey

research output basic science and applied science publications in lac annual average 1997 2006
Research Output: Basic Science and Applied Science publications in LAC(Annual Average 1997-2006)

Source: SCOPUS online database

slide14

Implications of the great diversity in size and capacity among LAC countries

Institutions that facilitate the sharing of research discoveries are critical given the country-country discrepancies in capacity.

IP sharing is a key issue given the number of small countries with limited research capacity.

Public sector lagging the private sector in progress in sharing IP. Intense amount of licensing of IP within the private sector.-

the risks necessary institutions and institutional capacities in lac1
The Risks: Necessary Institutions and Institutional Capacities in LAC
  • Basic Science Capacity
  • Applied (agricultural) science capacity
  • Biosafety regulatory institutions
    • Legislation
    • Experience in overseeing biosafety field trials
  • Research Investment capital
    • Public sector
    • Private sector
  • IPR institutions / financial incentives for technology discovery
same data as previous slide gmo commercial approvals by year
Same data as previous slide: GMO commercial approvals by year

No increase in the pace of GMO approvals over time

the risks necessary institutions and institutional capacities in lac2
The Risks: Necessary Institutions and Institutional Capacities in LAC
  • Basic Science Capacity
  • Applied (agricultural) science capacity
  • Biosafety regulatory institutions
    • Legislation
    • Experience in overseeing biosafety field trials
  • Research Investment capital
    • Public sector
    • Private sector
  • IPR institutions / financial incentives for technology discovery
slide22

Global R&D Expenditures on Crop biotechnology, 2001-Concentrated in Industrial Countries-Dominated by the private sector

Source: James, 2003

slide23

GMO royalties generated (US$ million)

US total= $1,043

$ 942

$ 745

Argentina

Other DCs

Source:NASS/USDA and author’s calculations

slide24

2000 Annual Expenditures on Agricultural Research Total annual Public Expenditures higher in Developing Countries than developed countries

Public sector spending

12

10

DC spending skewed by large investments by “Super Nars” (Brazil, India, China)

8

Billions 2000 int.$

6

4

2

0

Industrialized

Developing

Source: Pardey (2006)

slide25

BUT, Near Absence of Private Funding in Developing countries means that total ag research is nearly twice as high in industrial countries

Public sector spending

Private sector spending

12

10

8

Billions 2000 int.$

6

4

2

0

Industrialized

Industrialized

Developing

Developing

Source: Pardey (2006)

slide26

Total ag research spending Public and Private

Industrialized

Total research expenditures far higher in Industrialized countries because of private sector investments. Private investments are a compliment to public investment, not a substitute

Developing

12

10

8

Billions 2000 int.$

6

4

0

2

Source: Pardey (2006)

the risks necessary institutions and institutional capacities in lac3
The Risks: Necessary Institutions and Institutional Capacities in LAC
  • Capital for Research Investment
    • Public sector
    • Private sector
  • Basic Science Capacity
  • Applied (agricultural) science capacity
  • Biosafety regulatory
  • Ability to generate revenues from seed use
slide29

Mobilizing resources to Finance Biotechnology and Seed research: The Traditional Way

Research leading to a transformation

event

“Biotech” Companies

Field Testing

Regulatory/Biosafety

Approval

$$$

IP negotiation

Seed Markets

(Royalty

collection)

Adapted Transgenic

Variety

Genetic

Resources

Plant

Breeding

Farmers

$$$

Seed Companies

slide30

Difficulty in collecting royalties in developing countries blocks private sector investment

Research leading to a transformation

event

“Biotech” Companies

Field Testing

X

Regulatory/Biosafety

Approval

$$$

IP negotiation

Seed Markets

(Royalty

collection)

X

Adapted Transgenic

Variety

Genetic

Resources

Plant

Breeding

Farmers

X

$$$

Seed Companies

slide31

Institutional Innovation: End Point Royalty Scheme - IP Royalties Collected When Grain is Sold

Transformation

event

$$$

1. Biotechnology Research

Regulatory/Biosafety

Approval

IP negotiation

End point

Royalties

X

Royalty

collection

Adapted Transgenic

Variety

Genetic

Resources

Plant

Breeding

Grain

Dealers

Farmers

End point

Royalties

$$$

2. Plant breeding Research

slide32

Seed Sale versus Endpoint Royalty collection scheme

Seed Sales

  • “Royalty” included as part of seed price
  • Seed companies pay GM gene license fee to Monsanto
  • “Bolsa Blanca” seed sales destroy private sector investment incentive

Royalty Collection at Grain Sale (endpoint)

  • Royalty collected at elevator when grain sold
  • Royalty based on % of grain value
  • Administrative fee paid to elevators for collecting fee
  • Examples: Australia, France, UK, South Cone GMOs
royalties in paraguay
Royalties in Paraguay
  • Adoption 50% (1.8 million ha)
  • Collection begun in 2005
    • $3 - $6 ton, increasing over time
    • Distribution of Royalties
      • 53% Monsanto
      • 17% Seed Companies
      • 8% Grain handlers (50 firms)
      • 10% Public Research Foundation
      • 12% Administrative expenses
  • Source: http://www.inbio-paraguay.org/html/acuerdo_marco.htm
summary necessary institutions and institutional capacities in lac
Summary: Necessary Institutions and Institutional Capacities in LAC
  • Basic Science Capacity
  • Applied (agricultural) science capacity
  • Biosafety regulatory institutions
    • Legislation
    • Experience in overseeing biosafety field trials
  • Research Investment capital
    • Public sector
    • Private sector
  • IPR institutions / financial incentives for technology discovery
perspective opportunities to support biotechnology
Perspective: Opportunities to Support Biotechnology

Support for new mechanisms for mobilizing private sector R&D investment

Endpoint royalties is one experiment

Improved institutions/mechanisms for Public-Public sharing of IP

Public sector has more difficulty sharing IP than private sectot

Continued support for biosafety capacity

Public sector agricultural research must not be reduced, even if private sector investment increases – Distinct roles for each class of institution

Large opportunities for payoffs from biotechnology research in areas other than GMOs, but data on impacts to date lacking

  • Molecular Techniques for Genetic Improvement
  • Vaccines and Diagnostic Tools for Animal agriculture
  • Advances in Basic Science