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Finding different pathways to get to the same place. Differentiated Instruction. Differentiated Instruction. Differentiated Learning. Brain Learning. Instructional Strategies. Objectives. Experience research-based theories and instructional strategies.

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Differentiated instruction

Differentiated Instruction

Differentiated Learning

Brain Learning

Instructional Strategies


Objectives
Objectives

Experience research-based theories and instructional strategies.

Provide opportunities to process, discuss, and apply new learnings.

Have fun!


Brain learning
Brain Learning

Brain learning theory is based on the structure and function of the brain.

  • 30% to 60% of our brain’s initial wiring is based on heredity.

  • 40% to 70% of our brain’s initial wiring is based on the learning environment.

Heredity can’t be changed, but a positive learning environment can increase functioning of the brain.


Principles of brain based learning
Principles of Brain-Based Learning

  • The brain can perform several activities at once. (parallel processing)

  • The brain searches for meaning through patterning.

  • The brain processes wholes and parts simultaneously.

  • Learning involves conscious and unconscious processes.

  • Learning involves focused attention and peripheral perception.

  • Learning involves the whole physiology.

  • Memory is either rote or spatial.

  • Facts are understood best when embedded in natural, spatial memory.

  • Learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat.

  • Each brain is unique.


Brain compatible classroom
Brain Compatible Classroom

Absence of threat

Respects the uniqueness of all learners

Engages emotions

Understands the brain’s attention span

Active, relevant learning

Complex real-life learning

Specific immediate feedback

Utilizes patterns in learning

Learning is meaningful


Differentiated instruction

The best way to learn is not through lecture, but by participation in realistic settings.

Value the process of learning as much as the result of learning.


Brain learning and attention
Brain Learning and Attention participation in realistic settings.

The brain needs time to process and time to rest. It is not designed for continuous attention.

Optimum instruction time for focused attention

K-2 5-7 minutes

3-7 8-12 minutes

8-12 12-15 minutes

Increase learning productivity with mental breaks and movement.

Provide a strong contrast from what you were doing to what you want to do to grab attention.


Brain learning and motivation
Brain Learning and Motivation participation in realistic settings.

  • Eliminate threat and create a positive learning environment.

  • Set goals that are relevant to the student in order to provide a focused attitude.

  • Build self-confidence and self-esteem.

  • Manage emotions with varying instructional styles and differentiated instruction.

  • Provide immediate feedback.


Brain learning and emotion
Brain Learning and Emotion participation in realistic settings.

Emotions, thinking, and learning are linked.

Emotions: joy, fear, surprise, disgust, anger, sadness

Feelings: worry, anticipation, frustration, pessimism, optimism

“When emotions are engaged right after a learning experience, the memories are much more likely to be recalled and accuracy goes up.”

- Eric Jensen


Brain learning and movement
Brain Learning and Movement participation in realistic settings.

The part of the brain that processes movement is the same part that processes learning. Movement and learning are constantly interacting in the brain.

Exercise increases oxygen to the brain and strengthens key areas in the brain.


Brain learning and meaning
Brain Learning and Meaning participation in realistic settings.

Meaning is developed by creating links and associations.

Give meaning to learning by discussing information, organizing information, and reflecting.


Brain learning and memory
Brain Learning and Memory participation in realistic settings.

If we teach in bits and pieces, memory will fail.

If our instruction is vague and limited, memory will fail.

If no connections are made, memory will be short term.

If we teach in unique and meaningful ways, connect to prior experiences, and use the information often throughout instruction, memory will become long term.


Nourish the brain
Nourish the Brain participation in realistic settings.

The brain consumes 20% of the body’s energy. Good nutrition is essential to proper brain functioning.

The brain is approximately 80% water. Mild dehydration causes restless, scattered attention. Severe dehydration causes lethargic responses.

Sleep is critical for the brain to process learning. Puberty affects the sleep cycle.

Good quality air is linked to improved mental functioning. Keep plants in the room. Temperature controlled at 68-72 degrees.

Fluorescent lights cause eyestrain and anxiety. Use natural light and full spectrum lights.

Drugs and alcohol kill brain cells.


Enrich the classroom
Enrich the Classroom participation in realistic settings.

NoveltyKeep learning and the classroom fresh and new.

ChallengeProvide challenging learning tasks and content.

MeaningAvoid isolated facts. Make learning meaningful.

RedundantRevisit the content repeatedly in fresh and interesting ways.

FeedbackProvide frequent and immediate feedback.


Stimulate the senses
Stimulate the Senses participation in realistic settings.

Color

Blue Studying, thinking, concentration Purple Tranquilizing, good for appetite control Pink Restful, calming Red Creative thinking, short-term energy boosts GreenProductivity, long-term energyPastels Minimum disruption across all moods Yellow,Orange Physical work, exercising, positive moods White Disruptive

Aroma

Lavender Reduces stress Lemon Induces positive mood Peppermint Refreshes and invigorates Apple Relaxes brain waves Vanilla Relaxes and soothes


Differentiated instruction

Don’t think about how smart you are, participation in realistic settings.

but how you are smart.


Differentiated instruction

How are we smart? participation in realistic settings.

Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan


Differentiated instruction

Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan participation in realistic settings.


Differentiated instruction

Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan participation in realistic settings.


Differentiated instruction

Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan participation in realistic settings.


Differentiated instruction

Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan participation in realistic settings.


Differentiated instruction

Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan participation in realistic settings.


Differentiated instruction

Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan participation in realistic settings.


Differentiated instruction

Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan participation in realistic settings.


Differentiated instruction

Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan participation in realistic settings.


Learning and retaining information
Learning and Retaining Information participation in realistic settings.

Test Success


Lesson plan matrix
Lesson Plan Matrix participation in realistic settings.

The Multiple Intelligence Classroom: Practical Implementation of the Theory

- David G. Lazear


Learning styles
Learning Styles participation in realistic settings.


Perception and processing
Perception and Processing participation in realistic settings.

Sensing is a function that employs the five senses to gather information.

Intuition is a function that helps the mind understand and find meaning behind facts and details.

Thinking employs logic, reason, and evidence to analyze information and make logical connections.

Feeling is subjective as it develops a personal perspective to analyze information and make human connections.


Sensing thinking mastery learners
Sensing – Thinking participation in realistic settings.Mastery Learners

Sensing-Thinkers are efficient, prefer action to words, and involvement to theory. They are realistic, practical, and logical.

Sensing-Thinkers need a structured environment. They prefer questions with right/wrong answers.

Sensing-Thinkers are workers but have a need for immediate feedback.

Sensing-Thinkers like competition. They work to master skills and content.

What? How?


Intuitive thinking understanding learners
Intuitive – Thinking participation in realistic settings.Understanding Learners

Intuitive-Thinkers are curious about ideas and can deal with theory. They prefer to be challenged and like to think things through on their own.

Intuitive-Thinkers are planners and like to organize ideas and work. They do not like time limits.

Intuitive-Thinkers can break problems down into parts. They dig into ideas to thoroughly understand them.

Intuitive –Thinkers are avid readers, writers, and debaters.

Why?


Intuitive feeling self expressive learners
Intuitive – Feeling participation in realistic settings.Self-Expressive Learners

Intuitive-Feelers are imaginative, committed to values, and open to alternatives.

Intuitive-Feelers prefer open-ended questions and do not like rote assignments. They are motivated by their own interests.

Intuitive-Feelers are independent. They do not like step-by-step procedures. They are flexible and are not bothered by change.

Intuitive-Feelers look for creative ways to express themselves.

What would happen if…?


Sensing feeling interpersonal learners
Sensing – Feeling participation in realistic settings.Interpersonal Learners

Sensing-feelers approach learning personally. They need to be recognized for their effort.

Sensing-feelers like cooperative learning activities. They are sociable and need to enjoy themselves while learning.

Sensing-feelers learn best with real-life problems.

Of what value is this to me?


Differentiated instruction

Teachers have too much to cover in too little time. It is easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

Brain based research suggests that the single approach is ineffective for most students and even harmful to some.

  • Learning environments must feel emotionally safe for learning to take place.

  • To learn, students must experience appropriate levels of challenge.

  • Each brain needs to make its own meaning of ideas and skills.


Differentiated instruction

Student Differences easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

  • Skill levels

  • Motivation

  • Multiple Intelligences

  • Learning styles

  • Language proficiency

  • Background experiences and knowledge

  • Social and emotional development

  • Levels of abstraction

  • Ability to attend

  • Physical needs

An effective teacher understands that students come with different needs.


Differentiated instruction

The Aim of easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

Differentiated Learning

Maximize each student’s growth by meeting each student where he is and helping him to progress.


Differentiated instruction

Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

  • The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.

  • The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences.

  • Assessment and instruction are inseparable.

  • The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile.

  • All students participate in respectful work.

  • Students and teachers are collaborators in learning.

  • Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success.

  • Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.


Characteristics of an effective differentiated classroom
Characteristics of an Effective Differentiated Classroom easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

Instruction is concept focused and principle driven.

On-going assessment of student readiness and growth are built into the curriculum.

Flexible grouping is consistently used.

Students are active explorers.


Differentiated instruction

What can you differentiate? easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

the content students learn

the assessment tools being used

the performance tasks selected

the instructional strategies used


Differentiated instruction

Content easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

what is to be learned and the materials through which it is accomplished

Process

activities designed to use skills to make sense of ideas and information

Product

vehicles which demonstrate and extend what has been learned


Differentiated instruction

Readiness easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

the entry point of learning relative to a particular understanding or skill

Interest

curiosity or passion

Learning Profile

how we learn – shaped by intelligence preference, gender, culture, learning style


Differentiated instruction

Differentiate by Readiness easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

Varied texts and/or supplemental materials

Varied scaffolding in reading, writing, research, technology

Tiered tasks and/or products

Flexible time use

Small group instruction

Homework options

Tiered or scaffolded assessment

Compacting

Varied organizers


Differentiated instruction

Differentiate by Interest easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

Exploratory studies

Entry points

Open student choice

Teacher-structured choice

Independent study

Orbitals

Group investigation

Interest groups and/or centers


Differentiated instruction

Differentiate by Learning Profile easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

Vary teacher presentation

Vary student mode of expression

Organizers

4-MAT

Complex instruction

Flexible environment

Multiple modes of assessment


A differentiated classroom
A Differentiated Classroom easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.

Uses a variety of ways for students to explore curriculum content.

Uses a variety of sense-making activities and processes through which students can come to understand and own information and ideas.

Uses a variety of options through which students can demonstrate or exhibit what they have learned.


Differentiated instruction

The more you differentiate, the more you see the needs. The more you want to meet the needs, the more you differentiate.

Put it all together.


Building a toolkit of instructional strategies
Building a Toolkit of Instructional Strategies more you want to meet the needs, the more you differentiate.

Summarizing and Notetaking

Nonlinguistic Representations

Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

Similarities and Differences

Cooperative Learning

Homework and Practice

Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

Generating and Testing Hypotheses


Effective teaching involves
Effective Teaching Involves: more you want to meet the needs, the more you differentiate.

  • The instructional strategies used by the teacher.

  • The management techniques used by the teacher.

  • The curriculum designed by the teacher.


Differentiated instruction

An effective teacher is the by product of a thoughtful individual, skilled in the art and science of teaching, making decisions about the best practices for her students at all times.

- Marzano


Questions not answered
Questions Not Answered individual, skilled in the art and science of teaching, making decisions about the best practices for her students at all times.

Are some instructional strategies more effective in certain subject areas?

Are some instructional strategies more effective at certain grade levels?

Are some instructional strategies more effective with students from different backgrounds?

Are some instructional strategies more effective with students of different aptitude?


What is the research
What Is The Research? individual, skilled in the art and science of teaching, making decisions about the best practices for her students at all times.

Teaching is no longer an art. Researchers began looking at the effects of instruction on student learning 30 years ago. Teaching is now a science.

Specific instructional strategies used by teachers in K-12 classrooms have proven to be successful for increasing student achievement.

Individual teachers influence student learning.


Differentiated instruction

“The results of this study will document that the most important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

Wright et al., 1997


Identifying similarities and differences
Identifying Similarities and Differences important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

Similarities and differences can be identified by comparing, classifying, using metaphors and analogies.

Understanding similarities/differences allows students to analyze complex problems in a simple way.


Summarizing and notetaking
Summarizing and Notetaking important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

Summarizing and notetaking promote comprehension as students analyze a subject, choose what is essential, and put it all in their own words.


Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

Showing a connection between effort and achievement addresses student attitudes and beliefs.


Homework and practice
Homework and Practice important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

Homework is an opportunity to extend learning outside the classroom.

Practice is an opportunity to adapt skills while learning them.


Nonlinguistic representations
Nonlinguistic Representations important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

Knowledge is stored in the brain both linguistically and visually. Use both forms of learning to achieve.

Visual tools are nonlinguistic representations and include graphic organizers and mind mapping.


Cooperative learning
Cooperative Learning important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

Before new learning can occur, students need an opportunity to:

Express themselves;

Connect with people;

Connect with content.

Cooperative learning is a set of strategies which include student-student interaction within subject matter.


Setting objectives and providing feedback
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

Objectives provide a direction for learning.

Feedback should be timely, specific, and corrective.


Generating and testing hypotheses
Generating and Testing Hypotheses important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

Generating and testing hypotheses can be accomplished through deductive activities (using a rule to make a prediction about a future event) or inductive activities (drawing conclusions based on information given).


Cues questions and advance organizers
Cues, Questions, And Advance Organizers important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

This strategy helps students use what they already know about a topic to promote further learning.

Cues, questions, and advance organizers are most effective when used before presenting the learning.


You are the key to success
You Are The Key To Success important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”

As we learn about each individual strategy during the next few Fridays:

Examine your use of instructional strategies in the classroom;

Test the effectiveness of your current practices;

Consider and try new practices.