Finding different pathways to get to the same place. Differentiated Instruction. Differentiated Instruction. Differentiated Learning. Brain Learning. Instructional Strategies. Objectives. Experience research-based theories and instructional strategies.
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Experience research-based theories and instructional strategies.
Provide opportunities to process, discuss, and apply new learnings.
Brain learning theory is based on the structure and function of the brain.
Heredity can’t be changed, but a positive learning environment can increase functioning of the brain.
Absence of threat
Respects the uniqueness of all learners
Understands the brain’s attention span
Active, relevant learning
Complex real-life learning
Specific immediate feedback
Utilizes patterns in learning
Learning is meaningful
The best way to learn is not through lecture, but by participation in realistic settings.
Value the process of learning as much as the result of learning.
The brain needs time to process and time to rest. It is not designed for continuous attention.
Optimum instruction time for focused attention
K-2 5-7 minutes
3-7 8-12 minutes
8-12 12-15 minutes
Increase learning productivity with mental breaks and movement.
Provide a strong contrast from what you were doing to what you want to do to grab attention.
Emotions, thinking, and learning are linked.
Emotions: joy, fear, surprise, disgust, anger, sadness
Feelings: worry, anticipation, frustration, pessimism, optimism
“When emotions are engaged right after a learning experience, the memories are much more likely to be recalled and accuracy goes up.”
- Eric Jensen
The part of the brain that processes movement is the same part that processes learning. Movement and learning are constantly interacting in the brain.
Exercise increases oxygen to the brain and strengthens key areas in the brain.
Meaning is developed by creating links and associations.
Give meaning to learning by discussing information, organizing information, and reflecting.
If we teach in bits and pieces, memory will fail.
If our instruction is vague and limited, memory will fail.
If no connections are made, memory will be short term.
If we teach in unique and meaningful ways, connect to prior experiences, and use the information often throughout instruction, memory will become long term.
The brain consumes 20% of the body’s energy. Good nutrition is essential to proper brain functioning.
The brain is approximately 80% water. Mild dehydration causes restless, scattered attention. Severe dehydration causes lethargic responses.
Sleep is critical for the brain to process learning. Puberty affects the sleep cycle.
Good quality air is linked to improved mental functioning. Keep plants in the room. Temperature controlled at 68-72 degrees.
Fluorescent lights cause eyestrain and anxiety. Use natural light and full spectrum lights.
Drugs and alcohol kill brain cells.
NoveltyKeep learning and the classroom fresh and new.
ChallengeProvide challenging learning tasks and content.
MeaningAvoid isolated facts. Make learning meaningful.
RedundantRevisit the content repeatedly in fresh and interesting ways.
FeedbackProvide frequent and immediate feedback.
Blue Studying, thinking, concentration Purple Tranquilizing, good for appetite control Pink Restful, calming Red Creative thinking, short-term energy boosts GreenProductivity, long-term energyPastels Minimum disruption across all moods Yellow,Orange Physical work, exercising, positive moods White Disruptive
Lavender Reduces stress Lemon Induces positive mood Peppermint Refreshes and invigorates Apple Relaxes brain waves Vanilla Relaxes and soothes
Don’t think about how smart you are, participation in realistic settings.
but how you are smart.
How are we smart? participation in realistic settings.
Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan
The Multiple Intelligence Classroom: Practical Implementation of the Theory
- David G. Lazear
Sensing is a function that employs the five senses to gather information.
Intuition is a function that helps the mind understand and find meaning behind facts and details.
Thinking employs logic, reason, and evidence to analyze information and make logical connections.
Feeling is subjective as it develops a personal perspective to analyze information and make human connections.
Sensing-Thinkers are efficient, prefer action to words, and involvement to theory. They are realistic, practical, and logical.
Sensing-Thinkers need a structured environment. They prefer questions with right/wrong answers.
Sensing-Thinkers are workers but have a need for immediate feedback.
Sensing-Thinkers like competition. They work to master skills and content.
Intuitive-Thinkers are curious about ideas and can deal with theory. They prefer to be challenged and like to think things through on their own.
Intuitive-Thinkers are planners and like to organize ideas and work. They do not like time limits.
Intuitive-Thinkers can break problems down into parts. They dig into ideas to thoroughly understand them.
Intuitive –Thinkers are avid readers, writers, and debaters.
Intuitive-Feelers are imaginative, committed to values, and open to alternatives.
Intuitive-Feelers prefer open-ended questions and do not like rote assignments. They are motivated by their own interests.
Intuitive-Feelers are independent. They do not like step-by-step procedures. They are flexible and are not bothered by change.
Intuitive-Feelers look for creative ways to express themselves.
What would happen if…?
Sensing-feelers approach learning personally. They need to be recognized for their effort.
Sensing-feelers like cooperative learning activities. They are sociable and need to enjoy themselves while learning.
Sensing-feelers learn best with real-life problems.
Of what value is this to me?
Teachers have too much to cover in too little time. It is easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.
Brain based research suggests that the single approach is ineffective for most students and even harmful to some.
Student Differences easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.
An effective teacher understands that students come with different needs.
The Aim of easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.
Maximize each student’s growth by meeting each student where he is and helping him to progress.
Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.
Instruction is concept focused and principle driven.
On-going assessment of student readiness and growth are built into the curriculum.
Flexible grouping is consistently used.
Students are active explorers.
What can you differentiate? easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.
the content students learn
the assessment tools being used
the performance tasks selected
the instructional strategies used
Content easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.
what is to be learned and the materials through which it is accomplished
activities designed to use skills to make sense of ideas and information
vehicles which demonstrate and extend what has been learned
Readiness easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.
the entry point of learning relative to a particular understanding or skill
curiosity or passion
how we learn – shaped by intelligence preference, gender, culture, learning style
Differentiate by Readiness easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.
Varied texts and/or supplemental materials
Varied scaffolding in reading, writing, research, technology
Tiered tasks and/or products
Flexible time use
Small group instruction
Tiered or scaffolded assessment
Differentiate by Interest easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.
Open student choice
Interest groups and/or centers
Differentiate by Learning Profile easy to enter a classroom with a single lesson delivered to all students at a single pace in a single instructional method.
Vary teacher presentation
Vary student mode of expression
Multiple modes of assessment
Uses a variety of ways for students to explore curriculum content.
Uses a variety of sense-making activities and processes through which students can come to understand and own information and ideas.
Uses a variety of options through which students can demonstrate or exhibit what they have learned.
The more you differentiate, the more you see the needs. The more you want to meet the needs, the more you differentiate.
Put it all together.
Summarizing and Notetaking
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
Similarities and Differences
Homework and Practice
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
An effective teacher is the by product of a thoughtful individual, skilled in the art and science of teaching, making decisions about the best practices for her students at all times.
Are some instructional strategies more effective in certain subject areas?
Are some instructional strategies more effective at certain grade levels?
Are some instructional strategies more effective with students from different backgrounds?
Are some instructional strategies more effective with students of different aptitude?
Teaching is no longer an art. Researchers began looking at the effects of instruction on student learning 30 years ago. Teaching is now a science.
Specific instructional strategies used by teachers in K-12 classrooms have proven to be successful for increasing student achievement.
Individual teachers influence student learning.
“The results of this study will document that the most important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their classrooms.”
Wright et al., 1997
Similarities and differences can be identified by comparing, classifying, using metaphors and analogies.
Understanding similarities/differences allows students to analyze complex problems in a simple way.
Summarizing and notetaking promote comprehension as students analyze a subject, choose what is essential, and put it all in their own words.
Showing a connection between effort and achievement addresses student attitudes and beliefs.
Homework is an opportunity to extend learning outside the classroom.
Practice is an opportunity to adapt skills while learning them.
Knowledge is stored in the brain both linguistically and visually. Use both forms of learning to achieve.
Visual tools are nonlinguistic representations and include graphic organizers and mind mapping.
Before new learning can occur, students need an opportunity to:
Connect with people;
Connect with content.
Cooperative learning is a set of strategies which include student-student interaction within subject matter.
Objectives provide a direction for learning.
Feedback should be timely, specific, and corrective.
Generating and testing hypotheses can be accomplished through deductive activities (using a rule to make a prediction about a future event) or inductive activities (drawing conclusions based on information given).
This strategy helps students use what they already know about a topic to promote further learning.
Cues, questions, and advance organizers are most effective when used before presenting the learning.
As we learn about each individual strategy during the next few Fridays:
Examine your use of instructional strategies in the classroom;
Test the effectiveness of your current practices;
Consider and try new practices.