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Chapter 1 Foundations of American Citizenship. What is civics ?. Civics is the study of the rights and duties of citizens. Rights - privileges guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Duties -things you are required to do by law. Who Are American Citizens ?.

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what is civics
What is civics?
  • Civics is the study of the rights and duties of citizens.
    • Rights-privileges guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution.
    • Duties-things you are required to do by law.
who are american citizens
Who Are American Citizens?
  • born in the 50 states or the territories

(Puerto Rico, Guam, U.S. Virgin Islands, or the American Samoa)

  • born to a U.S. citizen (May have dual citizenship)
  • Anyone who has successfully completed the naturalization process
a diverse america
A Diverse America
  • USA = a nation of immigrants
  • Forced immigration = Slaves
  • Recently most have come from Central America or Asia
  • “Salad Bowl” Theory
middle passage
Middle Passage

Between 1619 and 1808 500,000 Africans made the journey

a changing america
A Changing America
  • America has experienced many different migrations- a mass movement of people within the country
    • From farms to the industrial jobs of the cities (mid 1800s)
    • African-Americans moving from the South to the North after the Civil War (late 1800s)
    • From Cities to suburbs (1950s to present)
    • From Northeast to South and West (1980s to present)
a more changing america
A “More-changing” America
  • Manufacturing economy to a SERVICE economy
  • The average age of Americans is climbing and people are having fewer children
  • Record number of Americans are going to college
  • Hispanic-Americans are now the fastest growing group in America
2010 census percentages
2010 Census Percentages
  • America’s estimated population in 2010: 308, 745, 538
    • White: 63.7%
    • Black or African American: 12.2%
    • American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.7%
    • Asian: 4.7%
    • Native Hawaiian an other Pacific Islander: 0.15%
    • Two or more races: 1.9%
    • Some other race: 0.2%
    • Hispanic or Latino: 16.3%

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau: National Population Estimates; Decennial Census)

  • 2012 American Population: 313, 914, 040
what brings america together
What Brings America Together?
  • American values (freedom, justice, equality, respect, tolerance)
  • A common language (English)
  • Traditional American Institutions:






aliens in america
Aliens In America
  • Limits on immigration
  • ~675,000 accepted
  • Priority: relatives already here & special skills
legal aliens
Legal Aliens
  • Here from another country…with permission
  • Why USA???
    • Jobs
    • schools
  • Function like “citizen” with limitations
  • Must pay taxes
legal aliens vs american citizens
Legal Aliens vs. American Citizens
  • Legal Aliens:
    • Can’t vote or run for office
    • No jury duty
    • Can’t hold government jobs
    • Must always carry an identification card to prove their legal status (green card)
illegal aliens
Illegal Aliens
  • ~5 to 6 million people per year enter illegally
  • Most risk capture and terrible conditions to sneak across the border
  • Seek a better life
  • Illegal to hire
  • Face deportation
how to become a citizen
How to become a Citizen?
  • Jus Sanguinis (Right of Blood)
    • One parent is a U.S. Citizen, birthplace does not matter
  • Jus Soli (Right of Birthplace)
    • If child is born in the U.S., even if parents are illegal immigrants
  • Naturalization
    • 18 years old
    • Permanent U.S. residency for 5 years, or if married to a U.S. citizen, 3 years
    • Good moral character
    • Read, write, speak English (some exceptions for Senior adults)
    • Citizenship test
    • Oath of Allegiance





















quiz time
Quiz Time!
  • Take out a sheet of paper and number 1-10
  • These are actual questions from the U.S. Citizenship Test
  • Candidates must answer 6 out of 10 correctly to gain citizenship
questions 1 5
Questions 1-5

3. We elect a President for how many years? A. 3B. 6C. 4D.5

4. Name one war fought by the United States in the 1800s. A. Spanish-American WarB. Gulf WarC. Indian-American WarD. Canadian-American War

5. Who was President during the Great Depression and World War II? A. George BushB. Woodrow WilsonC. Franklin RooseveltD. Abraham Lincoln

  • 1. Under our Constitution, some powers belong to the states. What is one power of the states? A. to create an armyB. to make treatiesC. to provide schooling and educationD. to print money
  • 2. If both the President and the Vice President can no longer serve, who becomes President? A. the Commander in Chief of the militaryB. an election is held to vote for a new PresidentC. the President pro tempore of the SenateD. the Speaker of the House of Representatives
questions 6 10
Questions 6-10
  • 6. Who is the "Father of Our Country"? A. Thomas JeffersonB. Abraham LincolnC. Benjamin FranklinD. George Washington
  • 7. What ocean is on the East Coast of the United States? A. Pacific OceanB. Arctic OceanC. Mediterranean SeaD. Atlantic Ocean
  • 8. Why do some states have more Representatives than other states? A. because they have more peopleB. because they are larger by land areaC. because they are larger by land and water areaD. because they have more rich people

9. What did Martin Luther King, Jr. do? A. fought for women rightsB. fought for civil rightsC. worked for capitalismD. fought for environment protection

10. What is the economic system in the United States? * A. market economyB. socialism economyC. government-managed economyD. federal economy

why do we need government
Why do we need Government?
  • Ruling authority for a community
  • Makes and enforces laws
  • Thomas Hobbes believed that without a government, we would have to compete for resources, territory, and power
  • Governments make it possible to live together peacefully and productively
functions of governments
Functions of Governments

- Establish courts to settle disputes

- Pass and enforce laws

functions of governments1
Functions of Governments


  • Libraries
  • Schools
  • Hospitals
  • Parks
  • Water, electricity, sewer, gas
  • Fire/police departments
functions of governments2
Functions of Governments


  • Manage the economy (budget)
  • Conduct foreign relations
functions of governments3
Functions of Governments


  • Prevent crime
  • Protect from foreign attacks
levels of government
Levels of Government
  • National (United States)
  • State (North Carolina)
  • Local
    • County (Alamance)
    • City or Town (Mebane)
    • Village
types of governments
Types of Governments
  • Direct Democracy- all citizens debate and vote on key issues
types of governments1
Types of Governments
  • Representative Democracy (also known as a Republic)- citizens choose a smaller group to make laws and govern for them
types of governments2
Types of Governments
  • Constitutional Monarchy- A country with a hereditary leader that must follow all laws and restrictions within a constitution
types of governments3
Types of Governments
  • Absolute Monarchy- A country with a hereditary ruler who has complete control over the country
types of governments4
Types of Governments
  • Dictatorship- A country ruled by a single person who uses force and fear to stay in power, usually with the control of the military
types of governments5
Types of Governments
  • Totalitarianism- Any government that tries to completely control every aspect of its citizens lives
authoritarian governments
Authoritarian Governments
  • Includes Absolute monarchies, dictatorships, and totalitarian states
  • Rulers inherit positions or take them by force
  • Ruler have unlimited powers and the government may impose anything it wants on the citizens
  • The government relies on control of the media, propaganda, military and police power, and terror to control people
  • Power is in the hands of one party or leader


Fair Elections

Limited Power

Protect citizens’ rights & freedoms

Rule of Law

principles of american democracy
Principles of American Democracy

1)Rule of Law-

  • All people, including those who govern, are bound by the law
principles of american democracy1
Principles of American Democracy

2)Limited Government-

  • Government is not all powerful-it may do only those things that the people have given it the power to do
principles of american democracy2
Principles of American Democracy

3)Consent of the Governed-

  • American citizens are the source of all government power
principles of american democracy3
Principles of American Democracy

4)Individual Rights-

  • In the American democracy, individual rights are protected by the government
principles of american democracy4
Principles of American Democracy

5)Representative Government-

  • People elect government leaders to make the laws and govern on their behalf