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Intro to Cell Biology VOCAB ONLY. http://school.discovery.com/clipart/clip/ani-turtle.html. organism. Another name for a “living thing”. Particle found in the nucleus of an atom with a positive charge. proton.

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slide2

http://school.discovery.com/clipart/clip/ani-turtle.html

organism

Another name for a “living thing”

Particle found in the nucleus of an atom with a positive charge

proton

slide3
Organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food; also called a producer

autotroph

Process in which offspring are

produced by combining genetic material

from 2 parents

Sexual reproduction

slide4

cellulose

Structural polysaccharide used to make plants sturdy

Special kind of nucleotide used by cells to store the energy released from burning glucose.

ATP

RIBOSE

Image by Riedell

slide5
Unfolding that happens to a protein

in extreme temperatures or pH that

causes it to change shape

denaturing

Stimulus that comes from outside

an organism

External stimulus

slide6
An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world

science

A short DNA segment that gives

the instructions for a protein

gene

slide7
The subunits made of a nitrogen base, and sugar, and a phosphate group used to make nucleic acids

nucleotides

Polysaccharide used by animal cells

to store glucose for later

glycogen

http://www.msu.edu/course/lbs/145/smith/s02/graphics/campbell_5.6.gif

slide8
Kind of lipid made from carbon and

hydrogen joined in rings instead of

chains that make up cell membranes and

can act as hormones

steroids

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_essentials_2/cipl/03/HTML/source/03-16-steroids-nl.htm

slide9

monosaccharide

Carbohydrate molecule like glucose

that is made from only ONE sugar

molecule

Scale used to measure acidity

Molecule formed when a substrate bondsto the active site of an enzyme

pH

Enzyme-substrate complex

slide10

heterotroph

Organism that obtains energy from the food it consumes; also called a consumer

Process in which offspring are

produced from the genetic material

of a single parent

Asexual reproduction

http://faculty.stcc.edu/rapp/biol102/biology_links.htm

slide11
Molecule that is REALLY, REALLY BIG

macromolecule

Stimulus that comes from inside

an organism

internal stimulus

slide12

consumer

Another name for a heterotroph

Atomic particle with a negative charge

electron

A signal to which an organism responds

stimulus

Image from: http://www.travel-net.com/~andrews/images/animations/traffic.gif

slide13

evolution

Change in an organism over time; Process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms

Place in an atom where electrons

orbit

Energy levels

slide14

cell

The basic unit of life is the ________.

The process in which cells change

as they grow and develop to

become specialized with different

functions

differentiation

http://www.ncu.edu.tw/~ls/graph/faculty_pictures/whole_time/SLC/SLC_lab-1.jpg

slide15
Embryonic cell that has the potential to differentiate into a variety cell types

Stem cell

Reactant that binds to the active

site of an enzyme during a

chemical reaction

substrate

slide16

producer

Another name for an autotroph

Neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom

neutron

Molecule such as glycogen, starch, or

cellulose, made by joining many

monosaccharide (sugar) molecules

together

polysaccharide

slide17

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/fig5x27b.jpghttp://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/fig5x27b.jpg

5 carbon sugar used to make RNA

ribose

Macromolecule made of a polar

glycerol phosphate head and

non- polar tails used to

make cell membranes

phospholipid

Image by Riedell

slide18
All the chemical reactions through

which an organism builds up or

breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes

metabolism

Organism made of many cells

multicellular

Molecules found in living things

that contain CARBON

organic

slide19

hemoglobin

Protein that carries oxygen found in red blood cells

Kind of chemical reaction used by cellsto join molecules together by removingan H and OH to make a water molecule

Dehydration synthesis

http://www.chemicalconnection.org.uk/chemistry/topics/images/pp3.jpg

slide20

homeostasis

Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

Substances produced during a chemical reaction that are found on the right side of a chemical equation

products

slide21

hydrophilic

Describes a polar molecule that mixes easily with water; means “water loving”

Small unit that can join together with

other small units to form polymers

monomer

Image by Riedell

slide22

glucose

The carbohydrate molecule that cells burn to release energy

Place on an enzyme where the substrate attaches

Active site

http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/cat-removed/enzyme_.gif

slide23

http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Membranes/membrane.htmhttp://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Membranes/membrane.htm

Molecule made of a protein with

carbohydrates attached found

in cell membranes that helps

in cell identification

glycoprotein

Protein hormone, missing in people

with diabetes, that tells cells to store

glucose as glycogen

insulin

slide24

DNA

Double stranded nucleic acid molecule

containing A, T, C, G nitrogen bases

found in chromosomes that stores

genetic information

http://web.mit.edu/esgbio/www/lm/sugars/sugars.html

Macromolecule made by joining MANY sugar molecules together in a chain

polysaccharide

slide25

http://www.chuckwagondiner.com/art/matches.jpg

Activation energy

Energy required to get a chemical reaction started

Attraction between oppositely

charged regions of nearby molecules

Van der Waals forces

Substance that speeds up a chemicalreaction by decreasing the

activation energy

catalyst

slide26

photosynthesis

The process plants use to capture energy from the sun and make glucose

Organism made of only one cell

unicellular

Chemical reaction in which a molecule

is broken apart by the addition of the

H and OH from a water molecule

hydrolysis

slide27

Protein that acts as a biological

catalyst in living things to help

chemical reactions happen faster

enzyme

Attraction between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules involving the hydrogen atoms of one molecule and the partially negatively charged

atoms in another molecule

Hydrogen bonds

Images from: http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html

slide28

Macromolecule that contains carbon,

hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, made

by joining amino acid subunits

Molecule with an uneven pattern of electric charges; More + on one side/ more – on the other

protein

polar

Image from: http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html

slide29

Image from: http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/fig5x27b.jpg

deoxyribose

5 carbon sugar used to make DNA

An atom that has gained or lost

electrons so it has an electric charge

ion

Substances on the left side of a

chemical equation which react

reactants

slide30

hydrophobic

Describes a non-polar molecule that tries to stay away from water; means “water fearing”

One of the components (including adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil) that make up nucleotides

Nitrogen bases

slide31
Compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms usually in a ratio of 1 C: 2 H: 1 O which is a major source of energy for the human body

carbohydrate

Large molecule made by joining smaller monomer subunits together

polymer

Image by Riedell

slide32

lipid

Macromolecule made mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes and steroids, which is generally hydrophobic

Macromolecule made of nucleotide subunits

containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

nitrogen, and phosphorus which stores and

transports information in cells and helps

in protein synthesis

nucleic acid

slide33

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

Single stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose and the nitrogen bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil

Subunit used to make proteins made up

of a carbon atom attached to

a hydrogen,

a carboxyl group (-COOH),

an amino group

(-NH2) , and a variable R group

Amino acid

Image by Riedell

slide34

starch

Polysaccharide used by PLANT cells

to store glucose for later

http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/BIOL115/Wyatt/Biochem/Carbos/Carb_poly.gif

The science of life (study of living things) is called _______________

biology

What does DNA stand for?

Deoxyribonucleic acid

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