Enzymes (the small print) walk-around. Describe the role of co enzymes Give an example of a prosthetic group How do the presence of inorganic ion co-factors affect an enzyme controlled reaction? Outline how potassium cyanide causes death How can enzymes be used to treat cystic fibrosis?
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Example: vitamin B3 helps the body break down carbohydrates and fat. The vitamin is used to make a co-enzyme that helps another enzyme : pyruvate dehydrogenase, to function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase is involved in respiration
Example: the enzyme carbonic anhydrase contains a zinc based prosthetic group. This enzyme is vital in red blood cells and helps to catalyse the combining of carbon dioxide and water to make carbonic acid
Example: the enzyme amylase catalyses the breakdown of starch to maltose- this enzyme will only function properly if chloride ions are present
Example: potassium cyanide inhibits cell respiration. It is a non-competititive inhibitor for a respiratory enzyme called cytochrome oxidase in mitochondria. Inhibition of the enzyme decreases the use of oxygen, so ATP cannot be made- the organisms can only respire anaerobically, so lactic acid builds up in the blood. Only 100-200mg is needed to make an adult unconscious in 10 seconds, in a coma in 45 minutes, then die after 2 hours
Example: mould produces extra cellular enzymes to digest bread
Substrate active site co-enzyme prosthetic group
primary tertiary globular activation energy
Induced fit lock and key denature intracellular
extracellular R-groups specificity temperature
Substrate concentration pH enzyme concentration inhibitor
competitive non-competitive reaction rate