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Ch 14 and 15 General Review. Environmental. For what purposes do we use land? Farming, mining, recreation, building cities and roads. Land that is covered mainly with buildings and roads. Urban land. An area that contains 2500 or more people and has a governing body. Urban area.

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    1. Ch 14 and 15 General Review Environmental

    2. For what purposes do we use land? • Farming, mining, recreation, building cities and roads.

    3. Land that is covered mainly with buildings and roads. • Urban land

    4. An area that contains 2500 or more people and has a governing body. • Urban area

    5. Land that contains relatively few people and large areas of open space. • Rural area

    6. Land used to graze livestock and wildlife. • Rangeland

    7. Land used for harvesting wood, wildlife, fish, nuts, and other resources. • Forest land

    8. Land used to grow plants for food and fiber. • cropland

    9. Land used for recreation and scenic enjoyment and for preserving native animal and plant communities and ecosystems. • Parks and Preserves

    10. Land that is difficult to use for human purposes. • Wetlands, mountains, and deserts

    11. What is the percentage of land that is used for cropland in the United States? • 20%

    12. What is the percentage of land that is used for range and pasture land in the United States? • 26%

    13. What is the percentage of urban land in the US? • 6%

    14. Each person in a developed country uses the ecosystem services provided by about _____ hectares of land and water. • 8

    15. The movement of people from rural areas to cities is known as ___________. • Urbanization

    16. How is a metropolitan area defined by the US census bureau? • Small towns that grow together to form larger urban areas.

    17. How can a rapidly increasing population overwhelm infrastructure? • Traffic jams, substandard housing, polluted air and water. The growth rate may increase faster than the ability to add infrastructure.

    18. What is the infrastructure for a city? • Roads, sewers, railroads, bridges, canals, police stations, schools, hospitals, water mains, power lines….etc

    19. The rapid expansion of a city into the countryside around the city. • Urban sprawl

    20. Land that is poorly suited for building. (slopes of mtns, landslide areas, floodplains) • Marginal land

    21. The increased temperature in a city. • Heat island

    22. What methods may city planners utilize to reduce the heat island effect? • Plant trees for shade. Install rooftops that reflect rather than retain heat.

    23. Determining in advance how land will be used. • Land use planning

    24. A computerized system for storing, manipulating, and viewing geographic data. • GIS geographic information system

    25. Open spaces in urban areas left in their natural condition. These include parks, public gardens, and hiking trails. • greenbelts

    26. Allowing more animals to graze in an area than the range can support. • Overgrazing

    27. Land that supports different vegetation types like grasslands, shrublands, and deserts and that is not used for farming or timber production. • rangeland

    28. Why was the Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 enacted? • To improve land management practices. • To improve the quantity of vegetation in rangeland.

    29. What is the average amount of wood used by each person in the world each day? • 1800 cubic cm per day

    30. In developing countries, how many people depend on firewood as their main source of fuel? • About 1.5 billion

    31. How does the timber industry classify forest lands? • Virgin forest, native forest, tree farms

    32. Forest that has never been cut. • Virgin forest

    33. Forest that is planted and managed. • Native forest

    34. Areas where trees are planted in rows and harvested like crops. • Tree farms

    35. What are the two most widely used methods of harvesting trees? • Clear cutting and selective cutting

    36. The clearing of trees from an area without replacing them. • deforestation

    37. An area in which the land and the ecosystems it supports are protected from all exploitation. • wilderness

    38. What is a disadvantage of selective cutting? • It is more expensive because lumberjacks may not be able to get their heavy equipment around the other trees.

    39. Why did crops fail in Ethiopia in 1985? • Lack of rain, loss of soil, and war

    40. Widespread starvation caused by a shortage of food. • famine

    41. The amount of energy that is available in food is expressed in ___________. • calories

    42. What are the major nutrients that we get from food? • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins

    43. A condition that occurs when people do not consume enough calories or do not eat a sufficient variety of foods to fulfill all of the body’s needs. • malnutrition

    44. The type and amount of food that a person eats. • diet

    45. __________ are produced in the greatest amounts worldwide. • grains

    46. People in more developed countries tend to eat more _______ and ______ than people eat in less developed countries. • Protein, fats

    47. In the US, almost half of all calories people consume come from _______, ______, and ________. • Meat, fish, and oil

    48. The amount of food that can be produced in a given area. • yield

    49. The world’s farmers produce enough grain to feed up to _____ billion people an adequate vegetarian diet. • 10

    50. The world’s hungry are nearly all _______ ______ and ______ _______. • Farm workers subsistence farmers