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ch 14 and 15 general review n.
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  1. Ch 14 and 15 General Review Environmental

  2. For what purposes do we use land? • Farming, mining, recreation, building cities and roads.

  3. Land that is covered mainly with buildings and roads. • Urban land

  4. An area that contains 2500 or more people and has a governing body. • Urban area

  5. Land that contains relatively few people and large areas of open space. • Rural area

  6. Land used to graze livestock and wildlife. • Rangeland

  7. Land used for harvesting wood, wildlife, fish, nuts, and other resources. • Forest land

  8. Land used to grow plants for food and fiber. • cropland

  9. Land used for recreation and scenic enjoyment and for preserving native animal and plant communities and ecosystems. • Parks and Preserves

  10. Land that is difficult to use for human purposes. • Wetlands, mountains, and deserts

  11. What is the percentage of land that is used for cropland in the United States? • 20%

  12. What is the percentage of land that is used for range and pasture land in the United States? • 26%

  13. What is the percentage of urban land in the US? • 6%

  14. Each person in a developed country uses the ecosystem services provided by about _____ hectares of land and water. • 8

  15. The movement of people from rural areas to cities is known as ___________. • Urbanization

  16. How is a metropolitan area defined by the US census bureau? • Small towns that grow together to form larger urban areas.

  17. How can a rapidly increasing population overwhelm infrastructure? • Traffic jams, substandard housing, polluted air and water. The growth rate may increase faster than the ability to add infrastructure.

  18. What is the infrastructure for a city? • Roads, sewers, railroads, bridges, canals, police stations, schools, hospitals, water mains, power lines….etc

  19. The rapid expansion of a city into the countryside around the city. • Urban sprawl

  20. Land that is poorly suited for building. (slopes of mtns, landslide areas, floodplains) • Marginal land

  21. The increased temperature in a city. • Heat island

  22. What methods may city planners utilize to reduce the heat island effect? • Plant trees for shade. Install rooftops that reflect rather than retain heat.

  23. Determining in advance how land will be used. • Land use planning

  24. A computerized system for storing, manipulating, and viewing geographic data. • GIS geographic information system

  25. Open spaces in urban areas left in their natural condition. These include parks, public gardens, and hiking trails. • greenbelts

  26. Allowing more animals to graze in an area than the range can support. • Overgrazing

  27. Land that supports different vegetation types like grasslands, shrublands, and deserts and that is not used for farming or timber production. • rangeland

  28. Why was the Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 enacted? • To improve land management practices. • To improve the quantity of vegetation in rangeland.

  29. What is the average amount of wood used by each person in the world each day? • 1800 cubic cm per day

  30. In developing countries, how many people depend on firewood as their main source of fuel? • About 1.5 billion

  31. How does the timber industry classify forest lands? • Virgin forest, native forest, tree farms

  32. Forest that has never been cut. • Virgin forest

  33. Forest that is planted and managed. • Native forest

  34. Areas where trees are planted in rows and harvested like crops. • Tree farms

  35. What are the two most widely used methods of harvesting trees? • Clear cutting and selective cutting

  36. The clearing of trees from an area without replacing them. • deforestation

  37. An area in which the land and the ecosystems it supports are protected from all exploitation. • wilderness

  38. What is a disadvantage of selective cutting? • It is more expensive because lumberjacks may not be able to get their heavy equipment around the other trees.

  39. Why did crops fail in Ethiopia in 1985? • Lack of rain, loss of soil, and war

  40. Widespread starvation caused by a shortage of food. • famine

  41. The amount of energy that is available in food is expressed in ___________. • calories

  42. What are the major nutrients that we get from food? • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins

  43. A condition that occurs when people do not consume enough calories or do not eat a sufficient variety of foods to fulfill all of the body’s needs. • malnutrition

  44. The type and amount of food that a person eats. • diet

  45. __________ are produced in the greatest amounts worldwide. • grains

  46. People in more developed countries tend to eat more _______ and ______ than people eat in less developed countries. • Protein, fats

  47. In the US, almost half of all calories people consume come from _______, ______, and ________. • Meat, fish, and oil

  48. The amount of food that can be produced in a given area. • yield

  49. The world’s farmers produce enough grain to feed up to _____ billion people an adequate vegetarian diet. • 10

  50. The world’s hungry are nearly all _______ ______ and ______ _______. • Farm workers subsistence farmers