Ch 14 and 15 General Review Environmental
For what purposes do we use land? • Farming, mining, recreation, building cities and roads.
An area that contains 2500 or more people and has a governing body. • Urban area
Land that contains relatively few people and large areas of open space. • Rural area
Land used to graze livestock and wildlife. • Rangeland
Land used for harvesting wood, wildlife, fish, nuts, and other resources. • Forest land
Land used to grow plants for food and fiber. • cropland
Land used for recreation and scenic enjoyment and for preserving native animal and plant communities and ecosystems. • Parks and Preserves
Land that is difficult to use for human purposes. • Wetlands, mountains, and deserts
What is the percentage of land that is used for cropland in the United States? • 20%
What is the percentage of land that is used for range and pasture land in the United States? • 26%
Each person in a developed country uses the ecosystem services provided by about _____ hectares of land and water. • 8
The movement of people from rural areas to cities is known as ___________. • Urbanization
How is a metropolitan area defined by the US census bureau? • Small towns that grow together to form larger urban areas.
How can a rapidly increasing population overwhelm infrastructure? • Traffic jams, substandard housing, polluted air and water. The growth rate may increase faster than the ability to add infrastructure.
What is the infrastructure for a city? • Roads, sewers, railroads, bridges, canals, police stations, schools, hospitals, water mains, power lines….etc
The rapid expansion of a city into the countryside around the city. • Urban sprawl
Land that is poorly suited for building. (slopes of mtns, landslide areas, floodplains) • Marginal land
The increased temperature in a city. • Heat island
What methods may city planners utilize to reduce the heat island effect? • Plant trees for shade. Install rooftops that reflect rather than retain heat.
Determining in advance how land will be used. • Land use planning
A computerized system for storing, manipulating, and viewing geographic data. • GIS geographic information system
Open spaces in urban areas left in their natural condition. These include parks, public gardens, and hiking trails. • greenbelts
Allowing more animals to graze in an area than the range can support. • Overgrazing
Land that supports different vegetation types like grasslands, shrublands, and deserts and that is not used for farming or timber production. • rangeland
Why was the Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 enacted? • To improve land management practices. • To improve the quantity of vegetation in rangeland.
What is the average amount of wood used by each person in the world each day? • 1800 cubic cm per day
In developing countries, how many people depend on firewood as their main source of fuel? • About 1.5 billion
How does the timber industry classify forest lands? • Virgin forest, native forest, tree farms
Forest that has never been cut. • Virgin forest
Forest that is planted and managed. • Native forest
Areas where trees are planted in rows and harvested like crops. • Tree farms
What are the two most widely used methods of harvesting trees? • Clear cutting and selective cutting
The clearing of trees from an area without replacing them. • deforestation
An area in which the land and the ecosystems it supports are protected from all exploitation. • wilderness
What is a disadvantage of selective cutting? • It is more expensive because lumberjacks may not be able to get their heavy equipment around the other trees.
Why did crops fail in Ethiopia in 1985? • Lack of rain, loss of soil, and war
The amount of energy that is available in food is expressed in ___________. • calories
What are the major nutrients that we get from food? • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
A condition that occurs when people do not consume enough calories or do not eat a sufficient variety of foods to fulfill all of the body’s needs. • malnutrition
People in more developed countries tend to eat more _______ and ______ than people eat in less developed countries. • Protein, fats
In the US, almost half of all calories people consume come from _______, ______, and ________. • Meat, fish, and oil
The world’s farmers produce enough grain to feed up to _____ billion people an adequate vegetarian diet. • 10
The world’s hungry are nearly all _______ ______ and ______ _______. • Farm workers subsistence farmers