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Washington State University. ADVANCE ing Institutional Transformation Workshop August 26, 2010. Cathy A. Trower, Ph.D. Session One What We Know About Pre-tenure Faculty. The Perfect Storm.

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washington state university

Washington State University

ADVANCEing Institutional Transformation Workshop

August 26, 2010

Cathy A. Trower, Ph.D.

the perfect storm
The Perfect Storm

“The university is the site of a perfect storm of 21st century expectations and medieval bureaucracy, and the promotion-and-tenure process is the clashing point.”

David Perlmutter, “Get Another Life”

Chronicle of Higher Education

March 14, 2008, Volume 54, Issue 27, p. C2

tenure clarity
Tenure Clarity

Scale: 5 = Very clear; 1 = Very unclear

confluence of five academic realities
Confluence of Five Academic Realities
  • Vague and inconsistent tenure guidelines
  • Lack of constructive feedback regarding progress toward tenure
  • A ‘don’t ask-don’t tell’ academic culture
  • Divergence in policy and practice
  • Sink or swim mentality
archery in the dark
“Archery in the Dark”
  • “You never really know where the bar is. I feel like since I started here the bar has been raised, which I encourage. But at the same time, you don’t really know where that is.”
  • “I wish they would just make everything clear…the expectations. Everything wasn’t written down. When I went up for my third year review, I said, ‘What protocols do you use? Do you have a manual that I can follow?’ And they said, ‘No.’ They didn’t even know how many copies [of my tenure file] I needed to make.”

Quotes from two pre-tenure faculty members

how am i doing
“How am I doing?”
  • “It would be great to give a clear expectation, saying, ‘You’ll be good if you target this versus that at this stage. If you’re only doing one [article] a year, this isn’t going to be good. Or, if your teaching evaluations are within this range, then you should actively seek out some kind of assistance. Or, this is how many service obligations you should have this year.”
    • (Pre-tenure faculty member)
  • “Pre-tenure faculty members want to know how to use their time, and how to gauge requests about whether to publish in this venue or that, whether to do this project or that. What I do with them is actually have a three and five year plan. A lot of it’s just about time management and choices about things…and advice about the process.”
    • (Chair)
don t ask don t tell
“Don’t Ask – Don’t Tell’
  • “It’s considered a weakness to ask questions; you’re showing you’re vulnerable. But I think it would be more stupid to not get tenure because I didn’t ask.”
    • (Pre-tenure faculty member)
  • “There is this pervasive and consistent attitude—a message that you are given all throughout your junior faculty years—about how you are not supposed to ask questions about expectations or requirements. You are just supposed to know. Ideally, we want an environment where junior faculty members can ask whatever they want.”
    • (Senior faculty member who came up through the ranks at her institution)
  • “The one that scares me on the ‘should’ rule is, well, you ‘should’ know how to get tenure here. You’re just supposed to somehow know.”
    • (Senior faculty member)
policy v practice
Policy v. Practice
  • “I’ve talked to a lot of junior faculty members who have gotten wildly divergent messages from faculty in their own department about what they are expected to do for promotion to associate.”
    • (Senior faculty member who came up through the ranks at his institution)
  • “You have to actually watch and see what happens to people ahead of you in the process, because what is said in the policy is not always what happens in practice.”
    • (Pre-tenure faculty member)
  • “Part of the tenure process, while it is based on these three criteria, is also about [being] ‘club-able’…the senior faculty are undecided on whether they want you in their club…. While you can do a lot of things in terms of preparing yourself…this is an elite club and you need to find ways of making the senior faculty feel comfortable with you, and that certainly introduces arbitrariness and contingency into the process.”
    • (Senior faculty member)
a sense of community
A Sense of Community
  • “The Essence of X”

“…it is perhaps the lack of community, and Xers’ attempts to find it, that truly define the generation, providing a unifying theme for their experiences, and encapsulating what has changed for them from previous generations” (p. 20).

Helms, Robin (2010). New challenges, new priorities: The experience of generation x faculty. A report of the collaborative on academic careers in higher education. Cambridge, MA: COACHE, Harvard Graduate School of Education.

what always mattered still matters but times have changed
What always mattered still matters, but times have changed.
  • Tenure is still the goal, and so is staying put.
  • Standards for excellence are higher and make ‘balance’ elusive in the early years.
  • Support for professional development before and after tenure is desired.
  • Mentoring matters, maybe more than ever.
  • Work-life balance still matters, but is ever more elusive.
  • A sense of collegiality and community still matter, but networks are broader.

Trower, C. (Summer 2010). A new generation of faculty: Similar core values in a different world. Peer Review, Washington, DC: AAC&U.

what does this all mean
What Does This All Mean?
  • Do you know what your pre-tenure faculty want?
  • Are your tenure policies clear? [Clarity]
    • How do you know?
  • Do you provide effective feedback to pre-tenure faculty? [Candor]
    • How do you know?
  • Are policy and practice consistent? [Consistency]
  • Are there senior scholars supporting and nurturing pre-tenure faculty? [Community]
http www fullerton edu far rtp rtp htm

Tenure-Track (Probationary) Faculty Information and Forms

  • Faculty Personnel Policy and Procedures (UPS 210.000)
  • UPDATE of changes to UPS 210.000
  • 2009-2010 RTP Timeline UPDATED 5-11-10 President's Memo - RTP Timeline 2009-2010
  • Co-authorship Form
  • Added Material Instructions ; Added Material Sample Form
  • Full Review Flow Chart; RTP Portfolio Checklist; Portfolio Table of Contents; Abbreviated Review Flow Chart
  • Non-Tenured Request for Early Action
  • The Prospectus (formerly Developmental Narratives)

Tenure Track Portfolio Workshop Materials/Information

  • Portfolio Binder Coversheet ; Appendix Binder Coversheet ; Raw Data Binder Coversheet ; Binder Spine Coversheets

Full Review Divider Templates-

  • 1st Set, 2nd Set, 3rd Set Index of Binder Materials (Brand/Type/Number)
  • Preparing the RTP Portfolio (From First Year Faculty Workshop)
  • Power Point Presentation (From First Year Faculty Workshop)
  • Abbreviated Review Instructions; Abbreviated Review Divider Templates ; Abbreviated Review Binder Coversheet and Abbreviated Review Binder Spine
northeastern university
Northeastern University
  • Has created and distributed a model dossier to provide guidance for tenure track professors.
  • http://www.facultymentoring.neu.edu/documents/ModelDossierCurrent.pdf


A flexible work arrangement can be made for up to 3 years. Under certain circumstances the flexible work arrangement can be renewed for additional terms but in any event such renewal shall not infringe on the department’s ability to carry out its mission. Each such determination will be made by the department chair if applicable or the dean of the school. In the case of pre-retirement agreements, longer arrangements are permitted on a case-by-case basis with approval of the Dean, Provost and the University Counsel’s office.

After appropriate discussion, the faculty member submits a request for a flexible work arrangement in writing (see Flexible Work Arrangement Request Form for Regular Rank Faculty) to the department chair, if applicable, or the dean of the school. The approved request, including the agreed upon 1) modification in duties, 2) compensation, and 3) the proposed total time for which the flexible arrangement will be in effect, then goes from the department chair to the dean. Approved flexible work arrangements will then be sent to the Provost for signature. The Provost’s Office will monitor usage of this policy.

Faculty members on the tenure track are automatically eligible for 3 months of tenure clock relief for each year of approved Flexible Work Arrangement. However, as outlined in the tenure clock relief policy, there is a 3-year (36 month) overall limit in tenure clock extension. Faculty members may opt out of tenure clock extension.

The University will continue to pay the employer's share of the cost of fringe benefit programs such as health care insurance, group life insurance, and the Faculty/Staff Retirement Plan for a faculty member on an approved flexible work arrangement. Where applicable, the benefit will be based on the revised salary.

Nothing contained in this proposal shall imply or suggest a status of less than full time employment for faculty who are working a modified schedule pursuant to this policy. Those individuals with approved flexible work arrangements shall continue as full colleagues, and are eligible for the rights and privileges of the full time faculty. They are beholden to policies affecting the faculty, as delineated in the Faculty Handbook, including criteria for promotion and tenure.


2. Teaching Relief

School policies should provide that an eligible faculty member who assumes substantial and sustained responsibility for the care of a newborn or newly adopted child is entitled automatically to paid relief from classroom duties for a full load during one semester/term. Where feasible, Schools may offer as an alternative paid teaching relief for a half load for two semesters/terms.

Where this alternative is available, the choice of one full semester/term or two half semesters/terms of teaching relief is to be made by the faculty member. The teaching relief will normally begin during the semester/term of the birth or adoption, and should be completed within one year after the teaching relief begins. A faculty member on teaching relief would be expected to continue with research and advising students for whom the faculty member has a pre‐existing obligation.

A faculty member using this policy would normally be the sole caregiver for at least twenty hours during the work week during the hours from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m., Monday through Friday. This policy is not intended for parents whose newborn or newly adopted child is cared for more than half time by either a spouse/partner and/or a childcare provider.

survive and thrive in the msu tenure system http fod msu edu survivethrive about asp
Survive and Thrive in the MSU Tenure Systemhttp://fod.msu.edu/survivethrive/about.asp

(Part I) Overview of Process and Expectations

June Youatt, Senior Associate Provost; Theodore H. Curry II, Associate Provost & Associate Vice President for Academic Human Resources; J. Ian Gray, Vice President for Research & Graduate Studies; and a Panel of MSU Deans, Department Chairs, College Advisory Committee members and recently tenured facultyThis workshop is designed for probationary tenure system faculty to provide assistance in functioning successfully within the tenure system at MSU. Workshop objectives include: 1) to expand faculty members’ understanding of department and University reappointment, promotion and tenure procedures; 2) to discuss approaches to documentation and record keeping for reappointment, promotion and tenure purposes; 3) to provide practical information on making choices, balancing conflicting demands, and managing departmental politics; 4) to provide an opportunity for communication and problem solving among faculty and academic administrators; and 5) to provide a venue for questions and answers. Many faculty members find it helpful to attend this program more than once, finding different elements useful at different stages of their pre-tenure experience.

(Part II) Writing Reflective Essays for Reappointment, Promotion and Tenure Dossiers

June Youatt, Senior Associate Provost; and Theodore H. Curry II, Associate Provost & Associate Vice President for Academic Human ResourcesThe afternoon portion of Survive and Thrive in the Tenure System has the following objectives: 1) To provide an introduction to writing productive reflective statements for reappointment, promotion and tenure dossiers, including clarifying purposes of the reflective essay in the evaluation process; providing the perspectives of central administration, deans, chairs/school directors, and college RP&T committees; identifying productive and unproductive strategies; responding to inquires about how to handle specific challenges in writing the reflective essay, e.g., illness, parental leave, etc.; 2) To provide resources for reappointment, tenure and promotion and mentoring developed by the NSF ADAPP ADVANCE grant (# 0811205); and 3) To provide a venue for questions and answers.

  • http://fod.msu.edu/survivethrive/about.asp

Ohio State University



Revised: 06/15/10; Edited: 06/15/10

The successful recruitment of well-qualified faculty often requires that the university must accommodate a dual career couple. In these instances, OAA expects deans and department chairs to cooperate willingly, constructively and in good faith with the hiring unit for the target candidate to accommodate the other half of the academic couple.

In some cases, OAA is able to assist units making such hires through its Dual Career Hiring Program. OAA provides cash to cover one third of the initial base salary of the partner following the targeted hire for the first three years of the appointment. The other two thirds of the salary and all of the benefits are split between the units of the targeted hire and the partner hire respectively. Dual career requests for additional cost-sharing will be evaluated on a case by case basis.

The university does not expect any department/college to hire candidates that do not meet the same quality standards as candidates hired in the receiving department. The process will be conducted with all deliberate speed to reach a final agreement in time to allow a successful recruitment of the target candidate.

dual careers
Dual careers
  • http://www.provost.illinois.edu/communication/08/Comm08.pdf
  • http://www.stanford.edu/group/gender/ResearchPrograms/DualCareer/DualCareerPolicyRecommendations.pdf
  • http://www.provost.iastate.edu/fad/docs/flexiblefacultycareersresource.pdf
  • www.historians.org/resources/Spousal_Hiring_Policies.doc
new faculty institute
New Faculty Institute

NFI Goals and Outcomes

  • NFI facilitates the transition of newly-hired faculty members into the K-State academic environment by providing information and tools that can help them become successful as educators and researchers at Kansas State University.
  • Participants of the K-State New Faculty Institute will:
    • Make contact, establish relationships, and initiate a professional network with peers and established faculty;
    • Become knowledgeable about Kansas State University;
    • Develop a sense of belonging to the K-State university community;
    • Take steps toward successful involvement in K-State's missions of teaching, research, and service; and
    • Become proactive participants in a life-long professional development process.



Training and Development for Department Chairs

Chairs Training Program A new, two-day mandatory training program intended to provide newly appointed department chairs with a strong foundation of knowledge, information and resources viewed as essential to their role.

Handbook for Chairs and Directors

A new resource for UC Davis Chairs and Directors to assist them in advancing the research, teaching, and service missions of their units, and help foster a collegial academic environment to support these missions.

Department Chair Brown Bags Department Chair Brown Bags are held monthly and are topical discussions and lectures intended to assist department chairs in their roles as leaders in academic departments. Topics include: Procedures for Faculty Advancement, Nurturing New Faculty, Organizing Your Department, Structuring and Managing a Department Budget, Best Practices for Conflict Management, Best Practices for Faculty Searches, Basics on Academic Advancement (for new Chairs), updates on issues in Academic Personnel (offered every Spring), and more.

Leadership Development Program The Leadership Development Program is a six-day series comprised of lecture, discussion and exercises, in areas such as: effective leadership, problem-solving, negotiations and communication skills. The program is offered to nominated Chairs and faculty.

other ideas
Other ideas
  • University of Kentucky
    • Created a Department Chair Advisory Board that (1) looked at peers' department chair training programs, (2) set up a website with information about chairs and other resources, and (3) offered workshops for chairs including Good Practices and Tenure Promotion, Legal 101, "Annual Major Personnel Issue" workshop, and Department Chair Orientation
  • University of Massachusetts
    • New model of mentoring focusing on networks and multiple mentors; offers grants to departments if they show innovative ways to develop substantive mentoring networks; micro grants for pre-tenure faculty to create their own mentoring network
    • Plan to increase size of faculty by 250 over 5 years beginning in 2005. The percentage of women and minority faculty hired since 2005 has gone up.
    • Created an Associate Provost for Faculty Retention and a Faculty Development position to develop further policies, procedures, and programs.
other ideas1
Other ideas
  • University of Missouri
    • Has scheduled a chair retreat in the fall to address the tools needed to retain key faculty talent.
  • University of North Carolina at Charlotte
    • Created “Force Field Fridays,” a weekly event for pre-tenure faculty to mix with tenured faculty.
    • Initiated a Committee on the Future of the Faculty after receiving a National Science Foundation ADVANCE grant. The committee’s purpose is to review policies, processes, and practices at UNC Charlotte that might impede recruitment, retention, and development of women faculty, particularly those in the STEM areas.
    • Administrators presented key findings to the Faculty Council, Council of Department Chairs, and Academic Affairs Council.
    • Organized the Committee on the Future of the Faculty to reexamine policies and procedures at the institution.
  • University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
    • Created a steering committee with faculty members to look at tenure. Subgroups focused on: (1) the future of tenure and the university (2) issues of engagement (3) new forms of scholarly communication (4) interdisciplinary work (5) mentorship
small group exercise
Small Group Exercise
  • Flexibility (e.g., PT tenure, STC, variable time to tenure)
  • Work-family integration (e.g., childcare, dual career)
  • Tenure clarity
  • Supportive culture (mentoring, support for research & teaching, collaboration)
  • What do we do well?
  • What do we do less well?
  • What would we like to try?
Session ThreeThe Strategic Importance of Climate and COACHE Data on STEM Women and Persons of Color
numerous studies similar message
Numerous Studies – Similar Message
  • Women found their departmental climates to be:
    • Less collegial/more contentious
    • Less cooperative/more competitive
    • Less conciliatory/more aggressive
    • Seeking individual advantage over collective good
    • Less cohesive/more fragmented
  • Women feel:
    • Less integrated/more isolated
    • Less comfortable sharing their views in meetings
    • Reluctant to raise concerns for fear of retribution
    • Less valued

Cornell University Faculty Work Life Survey


numerous studies similar message1
Numerous Studies – Similar Message
  • Both men and women say that their job satisfaction is influenced by the institutional leadership and mentoring, but only as mediated by the two key academic processes: 1) access to internal academic resources (including research-supportive workloads) and 2) internal relational supports from a collegial and inclusive immediate work environment.
  • Women’s job satisfaction derived more from their perceptions of internal relational supports [being valued, trust, feedback, opinion sought, welcomed and included] than the academic resources they received.
  • Men’s job satisfaction resulted equally from their perceptions of internal academic resources and internal relational supports received.

Bilimoria, D., S.R. Perry, X. Liang, E.P. Stoller, P. Higgins, C. Taylor (2006). “How do female

and male faculty construct job satisfaction?” Journal of Technology Transfer, 31, 355-365.

numerous studies similar messages
Numerous Studies – Similar Messages
  • Departmental climate is important to male and female faculty members, but may have an even greater impact on improving job satisfaction and reducing intentions to quit of female faculty.
  • Female faculty members are not inherently dissatisfied with their jobs, but rather…they value departmental climate [more]… When they experience negative climates they are more likely to experience lower job satisfaction and consider going elsewhere.
  • Females more likely to:
    • Value connections with others in the workplace
    • Be more aware of and place more value on the quality of interactions

Callister, Ronda Roberts (2006). “The Impact of Gender and Department Climate on Job Satisfaction

and Intentions to Quit for Faculty in Science and Engineering Fields,” Journal of Technology Transfer, 31, 367-375.

nature of work and climate matter most
Nature of Work and Climate Matter Most

Dependent variable: Global satisfaction

* Significant Race/Gender Controls: Yes

stem faculty at universities
STEM Faculty at Universities

Dependent variable: Global satisfaction

* Significant Race/Gender Controls: Yes


Climate is a function of…

Interest of senior faculty

Fairness of supervision

Opportunities to collaborate

Professional interaction with tenured colleagues

Professional interaction with peers

Personal interaction with tenured colleagues

Personal interaction with peers

Sense of “fit” in one’s department

Intellectual vitality of

senior colleagues

Fair and equitable treatment

a closer look at climate variables
A closer look at climate variables

Dependent variable: Global satisfaction

Note: Included controls for race, gender and academic area. Other cluster composites also included in the regression.

* Significant

stem women v stem men significant differences climate
STEM Women v. STEM MenSignificant Differences – Climate

Of the 10 climate factors, STEM women were less satisfied than STEM men with 9, significantly less so with these 5 at the 95% confidence interval.


Socialization: the process by which newcomers transition from being outsiders to being insiders.

Newcomers must learn to adapt

through uncertainty reduction.

Role clarity


Social acceptance

Job satisfaction

Intention to remain

Job performance


Institutional commitment

what can be done
What can be done?
  • Discuss the department’s climate; allow anonymous input
  • Discuss “ideal” climate, the actual climate and how to address gaps
  • Don’t assume that one size fits all (or even most)
  • Discuss how we socialize new faculty and what that implies
  • Provide meaningful orientation
  • Ensure mentoring – informal and formal and from the start
  • Ensure networking and connections
  • Create and sustain a culture of support and collaboration
as a large group
As a large group…

On an index card, list two adjectives that best describe your department’s culture.

Shuffle, redistribute, and read aloud.

small group exercise at 4 00 p m
Small Group Exercise at 4:00 p.m.
  • Based on what you’ve heard today, what ideas have the most merit?
  • What would facilitate progress?
  • What might be some barriers to change?
  • How might we overcome those barriers?