slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 116 Views
  • Uploaded on

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005. Status of advanced reactors and fuel cycles The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies – a challenging task. Roberto Cirimello.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICA Río de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005' - donnan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Status of advanced reactors and fuel cycles

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies – a challenging task

Roberto Cirimello

Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica Argentina

slide2

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARio de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Let me speculate...

  • The foreseen scenario for a new world, beyond the globalization, is:
  • Interdependent
  • Integrated
  • Regional organized
  • Flexible market in expansion
  • Energy dependent
  • Environmental friendly
  • Base on international collaboration

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide3

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Presenting the tesis...

  • Present Nuclear Technology is mature and it will last for 20 years more with life extension but...does not satisfy the new requirements.
  • Evolutive nuclear systems will cover the transition from the present to the innovative technology.
  • NTDT Systems do not satisfy either future requirements or long term demand
  • Innovative Nuclear Systems should be sustainable...

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide4

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Do not need nuclear energy in the short and medium term and likely not in the long term!!!

For nuclear energy to be considered an option Innovations should have many answers in terms of safety, waste management and radiological protection.

Parliaments

Politicians

Antinuclears

& NGOs

Nuclear

Community

www.iaea.org

The nuclear/antinuclear conflict

Nuclear is the solution for global sustainable energy needs if CO2 emissions should be reduced!

Innovation will improve economics, safety and environmental impact but present technology is mature.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide5

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

ECONOMY

RADIOACTIVE WASTE

ENVIRONMENT

SUSTAINABILITY OF NUCLEAR ENERGY

NON- PROLIFERATION

SAFETY

LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGY

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide6

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

NON-PROLIFERATION

ECONOMY

SAFETY

Nuclear Energy should be competitivewith the most economic source of energy of any kind.

Nuclear Safety of new systems should ensure a compatible risk probability with the foreseen level of technology of the second part of the century

Proliferation risk should be almostreduced to cero by intrinsic and extrinsic features in the new nuclear systems

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide7

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

RADIACTIVE WASTE

TECHNOLOGY LEVEL

ENVIRONMENT

Environmental impact of nuclear energy should be well within the expected standards and values foreseen for the second half of the century

Waste management issue should be solved for the second half of the century by demonstration of present technology or by reducing the time frame of its harmful effects.

Infrastructure, regulation, political and technical commitment should be well developed in the countries (present and future) by using nuclear energy.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide8

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

GT-MHR

INPRO

IRIS

I-NERI

Close cycle+FR Russia, India, France, ROK, China, Japan? under INPRO

MICANET

Gen IV

FUJI MSR

RTFR

PBMR

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide9

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

The purpose of Gen IV is to develop nuclear energy systems that would be available for worldwide deployment by 2030 or earlier.

Comparative advantages include: reduced capital cost, enhanced nuclear safety, minimal generation of nuclear waste, and further reduction of the risk of weapons materials proliferation.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide10

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

... is a high-temperature, high-pressure water-cooled reactor that operates above the thermodynamic critical point of water (374 degrees Celsius, 22.1 MPa, or 705 degrees Fahrenheit, 3208 psia).

... produces fission power in a circulating molten salt fuel mixture with an epithermal-spectrum reactor and a full actinide recycle fuel cycle.

Gen IV

Thermal Reactor

Concepts

... is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor with a once-through uranium fuel cycle.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide11

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Gen IV

Fast Reactor

Concepts

The LFR battery is a small factory-built turnkey plant operating on a closed fuel cycle with very long refueling interval (15 to 20 years) cassette core or replaceable reactor module.

...is a fast-spectrum lead or lead/bismuth eutectic liquid metal-cooled reactor and a closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides.

...is a fast-neutron-spectrum, helium-cooled reactor and closed fuel cycle.

The GFR´s and SFR´s fast spectrum also makes it possible to use available fissile and fertile materials (including depleted uranium) considerably more efficiently than thermal spectrum reactors with once-through fuel cycles.

...is a fast-spectrum, sodium-cooled reactor and a closed fuel cycle for efficient management of actinides and conversion of fertile uranium.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide12

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

IAEA INPRO PROJECT

  • INPRO (INternational PROyect on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle) objectives are:
  • Help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner, and to
  • Bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide13

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

INPRO PHASE 1 A+B

INPRO (INternational PROject on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle)

Development of a Methodology for the Assessment of suitable INS for future deployment (Basic Principles User Requirements and Criteria on Economics, Sustainability and Environment, Safety, Waste Management, Proliferation Resistance and Infrastructure)

Methodology Assessment throughout National and Individual Case Studies 2003/2004

2000/2002

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide14

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

INPRO Phase I B+ activities

  • Facilitate assessments of INS by MS (nationally or jointly) using the updated INPRO methodology as stated in the IAEA General Conference Resolution GC(48)/RES/13(F), which invites all Member States to perform “innovative nuclear energy systems assessments”;
  • Identification of possible frameworks and implementation options for collaborative R&D for INS development, which could be performed during Phase 2;
  • Enhance collaboration, on a complementary and synergetic basis, with other national and international INS initiatives (e.g. GIF);

Dead line June 2006

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide15

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

INPRO Phase II activities

INSTITUTIONAL -INFRASTRUCTURE

R&D

METHODOLOGY

  • Provide a forum to enable identification and prioritization of R&D needed
  • Identify and enable specific R&D to be performed under IAEA / INPRO auspices
  • Encourage, provide guidance and assistance to interested IAEA Member States to perform joint research and implement projects for INS development.
  • Undertake relevant studies and analysis to evaluate the potential role of INS for sustainable development;
  • Facilitate the application of INPRO methodology to provide guidance for INS deployment strategies at a national, regional, or global scale, with emphasis on the needs of developing countries;
  • Assistance for and facilitation of harmonization of licensing and industrial codes and standards, maintenance or development of necessary competences and experience, research facilities, etc. for INS.
  • Further development of INPRO methodology and refinement of the assessment method in all INPRO areas.

Starting date July 2006

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide16

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

MICANET

Michelangelo network; competitiveness and sustainability of nuclear energy in the European union.

The objective of MICANET is to propose a strategy for the European R&D aimed at keeping the industrial nuclear option open in 21st Century. The approach will be global, including all aspects, from fuel cycle front end to final disposal, from technical-economic issues to political, social and psychological dimensions of acceptance, connecting in a network projects that can contribute to MICANET objectives.

MICANET will act for the development an effective/active European partnership to the U.S. initiative GENERATION IV.

Project period expired 30.11.2005

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide17

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Reactor vessel is a vertical steel pressure enclosure 6 meters in diameter and 20 meters high .  The enclosure is lined with a layer of graphite bricks which serve as an outer reflector and a passive heat transfer mechanism .  This lining is drilled with vertical holes for insertion of the control rods. 

The inner reactor core portion consists of two zones and is 3.7 meters in diameter and 9.0 meters high.  The inner zone, contains approximately 185,000 graphite spheres and the outer zone, contains approximately 370,000 fuel spheres. 

The graphite spheres serve as a moderator for the nuclear reaction.  This moderator slows the prompt neutrons.  The reactor is cooled by Helium.

PBMR

SOUTH AFRIKA

Investors in the PBMR project are Eskom, the South African Industrial Development Corporation and British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL)

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide18

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

USA

The IRIS reactor is a light-water reactor (LWR). It is modular in design, each module capable of producing between 100 and 300 megawatts of electricity.

It has an integral design-the steam generators, pumps, and pressurizer inside the reactor vessel. Each unit would have eight modular, once-through steam generators that would be connected to four steam and feed piping connections.

Construction cost for one module, reduced through factory fabrication, is expected to be between $200 and $300 million.

IRIS

IRIS

International Reactor Innovative & Secure

The IRIS team is an international consortium led by Westinghouse and consisting of vendors, energy companies, and universities from seven countries, including Brazil, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide19

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

GT-MHR

The Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), will be built as modules of 285 MWe each directly driving a gas turbine at 48% thermal efficiency.

The cylindrical core consists of 102 hexagonal fuel element columns of graphite blocks with channels for helium and control rods. Graphite reflector blocks are both inside and around the core. Half the core is replaced every 18 months.

Burn-up is about 100 GWd/t, and coolant outlet temperature is 850°C with a target of 1000°C. Initially it will be used to burn pure ex-weapons plutonium at Tomsk in Russia. The preliminary design stage was completed in 2001. Plant costs are expected to be less than US$ 1000 /kW and total generating cost 2.9 c/kWh.

USA- Russia-Japan

It is being developed by General Atomics (USA) in partnership with Russia's Minatom, supported by Fuji (Japan).

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide20

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

MSR CONCEPT

The FUJI MSR is a 100 MWe design operating as a near-breeder. The attractive features of this MSR fuel cycle include: the high-level waste comprising fission products only, hence shorter-lived radioactivity; small inventory of weapons-fissile material (Pu-242 being the dominant Pu isotope); low fuel use; and safety due to passive cooling up to any size.

The FUJI MSR is being developed internationally by a Japanese, Russian and US consortium.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide21

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

ADS for P & T

ADS Transmutation Clusters

EURATOM

FUETRA

BASTRA

FUTURE

MUSE

CONFIRM

HINDAS

ADS Partitioning Cluster

THORIUM CYCLE

n-TOF _ND_ADS

TESTRA

PYROREP

The MEGAPIE-TEST project covers the experimental and analytical R&D work performed for the 1 MW lead-bismut eutectic (LBE) spallation target that will be irradiated in the SINQ facility PSI (Switzerland)

ASCHLIM

PARTNEW

MEGAPIE

CALIXPART

TECLA

International partners are:Belgium (SCK.CEN), France (CEA), Germany (FZK), Italy (ENEA), Switzerland (PSI), Japan (JAERI), ROK (KAERI) USA (DoE)

SPIRE

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide22

Nitride fuel pellets with actinides for testing in the ATR.

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

ADS Fuels

THORIUM CYCLE PROJECT develop Thorium base fuel...

ELECTRONIC MICROGRAPH OF MICROSFERS OBTEIN BY SPRAYDRYING DE (U,Th) O2 SINTERED AT 1,650°C BY 10 h IN A Ar-5 % H2 FLOW

Conceptual scheme of a Fuel Rod made by a (Th,U)O2 dispersion

Others ADS fuels...

CONFIRM Project: evaluation of nitride fuel (U-Pu, Pu-Zr and Am-Zr)

FUTURE Project: investigation on oxides fuel Pu-Am, Th-Pu-Am and Pu-Am-Zr

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide23

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

RTFR

The Radkowsky Thorium Fuel Reactor (RTFR) concept is not a reactor design, but rather a fuel and fuel-cycle concept that can be adapted for use in water-cooled reactors. Although applicable in principle to both light-water-cooled and heavy-water-cooled reactors, the design focus to date has been on LWR applications (PWRs).

The RTFR fuel concept consists of a seed-blanket unit fuel assembly containing enriched uranium (less than 20%235U) in the central region and thorium in the surrounding blanket. The blanket material also contains a small amount (about 0.1 %) of enriched uranium.

The principal benefits of the concept include the use of abundant thorium fuel, which preserves uranium resources, and a substantial reduction in the quantities of uranium-derived actinides that are produced during reactor operation.

RTFR is an international collaboration among USA, Japan and Israel

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide24

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Close Fuel Cycle with FR Study

An assessment will be carried out as a Joint Study covering innovative nuclear energy systems based on closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors. In line with the principles of the INPRO methodology, must satisfy the conditions for sustainable development, strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, and solving of energy problems at global, regional and national level in the 21st century.

The activities under this Joint Study are aimed to contribute to the achievement of the overall goals of Phase 1B of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO).

The scope of the INSs will be based on the most promising solutions in the field of a closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactor technologies.

Scheduled timeframe: beginning of 2005 – middle of 2006.

The assessment will be carried out by Russia, India, France, ROK, China and likely Japan under INPRO procedures.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide25

INternational PROject on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO)

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Main Strength of Existing

International Projects

BILATERAL PROJECTS

  • STRONG COMMITMENT OF PARTNERS
  • HIGH INVESTMENT IN R & D MADE BY LEADING COUNTRIES AND PRESENT TECHNOLOGY HOLDERS
  • R & D ORIENTED
  • WIDTH BASIS FOR SELECTION OF CONCEPTS
  • STRONG COMMITMENT OF PARTNERS
  • ADEQUATED TO REGIONAL OR COUNTRIES INTEREST
  • BUDGET ACCORDING TO POSSIBILITIES
  • MANPOWER SUPPORTED BY PARTNERS ORGANIZATIONS
  • OPEN TO ALL IAEA MS
  • INS ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AGREE UPON TRYOUT AND CONSENSUS
  • WELL POSITIONED FOR DEVELOPING INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION AND PROMOTE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
  • MAINLY ORIENTED TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide26

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

First conclusion

There is not overlapping of strengths among present innovative nuclear technology International Projects and Programs...but,

…final target and objectives should be clarified for enhance the collaboration.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide27

INternational PROject on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO)

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Topics to be subject of

exchange of information

among Projects

BILATERAL PROJECTS

  • Non-proprietary results of R & D avoiding mistakes and duplication of effort and resources,
  • Consensus on non-proliferant technologies features, both intrinsic and extrinsic,
  • Agreements on international certification, standards and codes,
  • Knowledge Management and Education strategies and programs
  • Way of financing of new projects in developing countries
  • Public awareness and innovative way to inform them

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina

slide28

MAINTAINING THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN LATIN AMERICARío de Janeiro, BRAZIL -  13 -16 June 2005

Thank you very much...

Muito obrigado...

Muchas gracias...

...for your attention.

The synergism among international projects on Innovative Nuclear Technologies - a challenging task - Roberto CirimelloComisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - Argentina