Download
introduction n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction

Introduction

98 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Introduction

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Introduction • Who are we? • Who are you? • What would you like to gain from the workshop? • Defining participation • What are we doing today? 10:00 – 10:30

  2. Defining Participation • A brief history • Why participation? • How is it different? • Strengths/weaknesses? Defining Participation

  3. Best Practice • participation as a learning process • Two-way communication • empowerment • building long-term relationships • people involved: • develop mutual trust and respect • learn from each other to negotiate potential solutions Defining Participation

  4. Types of Participation Defining Participation

  5. Participation in Research • Participatory Research • Participant Leads • Participatory Methods • Participants ‘participate’ in methods What are we Doing? • Top-Down Research • Researcher Leads

  6. Participation in Research • Participatory Research • Participant Leads • Participatory Methods • Participants ‘participate’ in methods Stirling, 2008, Science, Technology, Human Values 33; p. 262 What are we Doing? • Top-Down Research • Researcher Leads

  7. Day Plan What are we Doing?

  8. Problems and Stakeholders • Introduction to research problems • Identifying and characterising stakeholders • Identifying and characterising participants 10:30 – 11:30

  9. Stakeholders • Stakeholders are anyone who can affect or be affected by a decision or action (after Freeman, 1984) • Ability to speak and/or act • Roles • Power/influence • Connectivity/visibility Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

  10. Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

  11. Typology • Three categories of method for stakeholder analysis: • Identifying stakeholders • Differentiating/categorising • Investigating relationships Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

  12. Typology • Three categories of method for stakeholder analysis: • Identifying stakeholders • Differentiating/categorising • Investigating relationships Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders Grimble & Wellard, 1997, Agricultural Systems, 55(2), pp. 173-193

  13. Practise Analysis Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

  14. 5 Mins Tool 1: Brainstorm stakeholders • Make a list of the stakeholders that exist in relation to your case study Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

  15. 5 Mins Tool 2: Interest/Influence Matrices High Context setters - highly influential, but have little interest. Try and work closely as they could have a significant impact Key players – must work closely with these to affect change Influence Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders Crowd – little interest or influence so may not be worth prioritising, but be aware their interest or influence may change with time Subjects – may be affected but lack power. Can become influential by forming alliances with others. Often includes marginalised groups you may wish to empower Low Level of Interest High

  16. 5 Mins Tool 3: Venn Diagrams Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders • Step 1: Create circles of different sizes depending on the size of the stakeholder’s power/influence. The larger the circle the more influential the stakeholder. • Step 2: Arrange circles so that overlaps represent interaction in the real world. Greater distance between circles lesser the levels interaction. No overlap = no interaction. • Step 3: Identify possible conflict – highlight in red somehow (arrows/lines)

  17. 5 Mins Reflect on your group work… • How useful were the tools? • Can you think of other possible tools for the same tasks? • In the real problem scenario what challenges might you have faced with these tools? (hint – think about theories of participation) Identifying and Characterising Stakeholders

  18. 10 Mins Stakeholders/Participants • Select a research question: • Which stakeholders will you need to involve? • Do you need to categorise them or understand relationships for your research? • How could you do this? (be careful to account for the limitations identified!) Identifying and Characterising Participants

  19. Example 1: Moors for the Future • Social Network Analysis with 80-strong Moors for the Future Partnership • Communication ties between individuals and groups • Examine who needs to be involved in planning Identifying and Characterising Participants

  20. Recreation Agriculture Water Conservation Grouse …and despite the fact that certain groups have little contact with each other… Despite apparently polarised views on burning, upland stakeholders in the Peak District are highly connected… Identifying and Characterising Participants ...the majority of individuals perceive considerable overlap between their views on upland management and the views of those they know from other groups.

  21. Recreation Agriculture Water Conservation Prell, Hubacek, Reed, 2009, Society & Natural Resources, 22(6), pp. 501-518 Grouse …and despite the fact that certain groups have little contact with each other… Despite apparently polarised views on burning, upland stakeholders in the Peak District are highly connected… Identifying and Characterising Participants ...the majority of individuals perceive considerable overlap between their views on upland management and the views of those they know from other groups.

  22. Example 2: Hungarian Water Policy • Explaining failed policy enactment • Governance actors and their roles • Mapped through policy and snowball sampling Identifying and Characterising Participants

  23. Identifying and Characterising Participants

  24. Conclusions • Stakeholder analysis as research or as a baseline to research • Identification and characterisation should be tailored to specific research • But beware of the implications of your approach on your research! • Stakeholders and participants may not be synonymous (though awareness essential) Identifying and Characterising Participants

  25. Participatory Tools • Overview of Tools • Matching Tools to Research Aims • Implementation Challenges 11:30-12:30

  26. The Toolbox (2) Overview of Tools

  27. The Toolbox (2) Chambers, R., 1994 World Development. 22, 953-969. Binns, T., 1997, Applied Geography. 17, 1-9 Overview of Tools

  28. Exploratory Tools • Community mapping – transect walks • Brain-storming - timelines • Interviews Overview of Tools Lingen, 1997

  29. Analysis Tools • Cause-effect mapping • Timeline • Interviews • Discussion groups Overview of Tools

  30. Deciding Tools • Scenario planning/mapping • Multi-criteria evaluation • Interviews Overview of Tools

  31. 10 Mins Selecting Methods • What kind of research are you doing? • What information do you need? • Which tools might be appropriate? Matching Tools to Aims

  32. Key Challenges (1) • What happens outside the room? • Power • Knowledge construction • Barriers • What happens inside the room? • Your role • Conflicts • Dominance Implementation Challenges

  33. Key Challenges (1) Positionality Knowledge cultures Tippett, et al., 2005, Environmental Science & Policy, 8(3) pp. 287-299 Twyman , et al., 1999, Area, 31(4) pp. 313-325 Williamson & Prosser, 2002, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(5) pp. 587-593 • What happens outside the room? • Power • Knowledge construction • Barriers • What happens inside the room? • Your role • Conflicts • Dominance Implementation Challenges

  34. Key Challenges (2) • Practicalities • Size • Materials • Cost • Timing/Duration • Record keeping Implementation Challenges

  35. Key Challenges (2) • Practicalities • Size • Materials • Cost • Timing/Duration • Record keeping Search on specific methods, possibly more in text books! Implementation Challenges

  36. Strategies • What do you want to know? • To what extent do you manage? • Plan practicalities • And plan an alternative! • Local sensitivity • Researcher diary? • Participant diary? Implementation Challenges

  37. Strategies Glaze, 2002, Reflective Practice, 3(2) pp. 153-166 • What do you want to know? • To what extent do you manage? • Plan practicalities • And plan an alternative! • Local sensitivity • Researcher diary? • Participant diary? Implementation Challenges

  38. 10 Mins How will you prepare? • Mindmap the potential problems with your group. Consider the following categories: • Outside the room • Inside the room • Practicalities • Try to identify problems (red) and solutions (green) • Try to indicate things you can plan in advance, and things to manage in the event Implementation Challenges

  39. Conclusions • Consider what data you need to answer your question • Consider what tools are suitable for your participants • Design your ‘event’ so that outcomes are meaningful – before and during Implementation Challenges

  40. Using Participatory Methods • Consolidation of feedback so far • Practicing participation 1:30-2:30

  41. Questions? • Do you feel ready to implement your plan? • Do you understand how your plan fits in to your research? Consolidation of feedback so far

  42. 15 Mins Go! • Two groups team up • Chose one plan and give it a go • You can decide how many participants/facilitators Practising Participation

  43. 15 Mins Swap! • Swap over and enact the other group’s plan Practising Participation

  44. 15 Mins Compare • Have you done things differently? Why? • What were the strengths and weaknesses? • What would you change? • Do you think this method could be used in your PhD research? • How would it fit with your wider aims/approach? Practising Participation

  45. Fitting Participatory Methods into the Research Plan • Key implementation challenges (and how to address them) • How to design your research strategy • How to use your data 2:30-3:30

  46. What if...? • One participant dominates? Key implementation challenges

  47. What if...? • One participant dominates? • Skilled facilitation • Ask (yourself) why they are dominating • Find a way to draw out other voices (later?) Key implementation challenges

  48. What if...? • The group is massive? Key implementation challenges

  49. What if...? • The group is massive? • Sub-groups? • Mixed stakeholders or thematic? • Assistants (consider data consistency) • Sporadic integration Key implementation challenges

  50. What if...? • No one stays ‘on-topic’? • You realise your approach is meaningless? Key implementation challenges