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Multicast Address Discovery Protocol. IETF Vancouver – Oct 2005. Problem. Enterprise Networks wish to deploy Scoped Zones. Allows them to limit the scope of applications. Examples: Norton Ghost, Altiris Many applications use “fixed” addresses.

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multicast address discovery protocol

Multicast AddressDiscovery Protocol

IETF Vancouver – Oct 2005

problem
Problem
  • Enterprise Networks wish to deploy Scoped Zones.
    • Allows them to limit the scope of applications.
      • Examples: Norton Ghost, Altiris
    • Many applications use “fixed” addresses.
      • Often due to need for (near) zero-configuration operation.
      • Some haven’t even bothered to register with IANA!!
        • Address Assignment by “Atmospheric Extraction”.
    • Scope range maintenance becomes complex
      • Must make exceptions for these “rogue” applications.
      • More and more such applications popping up.
    • Need a way to achieve (near) zero-configuration and yet give network admin control of addresses used by apps.
rfc 2365 administratively scoped zones
RFC 2365 – Administratively Scoped Zones

239.0.0.0

RFC 2365

Org.-LocalExpansion

  • Defines only 2 Well-Known Scopes
    • Organization-Local Scope (239.192/14)
      • Largest scope within the Enterprise network.
    • Local Scope (239.255/16)
      • Smallest possible scope within the Enterprise network.
        • Other scopes may be equal to but not smaller in scope.
    • Both scopes have expansion space below their range.

239.192.0.0

RFC 2365

Org-Local

Scope

239.196.0.0

Unassigned

239.255.253.0

RFC 2365

Local ScopeExpansion

239.255.0.0

RFC 2365

Local

Scope

239.255.255.255

(Not to scale.)

scope relative addresses rfc 2365
Scope Relative Addresses – RFC 2365

Top 256 Addresses of every Admin. Scope Range.

scope relative local scope
Scope Relative – Local Scope

239.0.0.0

239.255.0.0

Local Scope

239.254.255.255

239.255.255.0

Local Scope

Scope Relative

239.255.255.255

(Not to scale.)

scope relative org local scope
Scope Relative – Org-Local Scope

239.0.0.0

239.192.0.0

Org-Local Scope

239.195.254.255

239.195.255.0

Org-Local Scope Relative

239.195.255.255

(Not to scale.)

administratively scoped zone example
Administratively-Scoped Zone Example
  • ACME Enterprises:
    • Three levels of internal scopes
      • Campus Scope
      • Region Scope
      • Org-Local Scope
        • aka Enterprise-Wide Scope
    • One external scope
      • Global scope
      • i.e. everything else (Internet)
acme s scoped zones
Australia

North

America

ASIAPAC

China

Canada

East Coast

US

India

Japan

West Coast

US

Core

North

Region

EMEA

Eastern

Region

Internet

South Region

ACME’s Scoped Zones
acme s scoped zones1
Australia

North

America

ASIAPAC

China

Canada

East Coast

US

India

Japan

West Coast

US

Core

North

Region

EMEA

Eastern

Region

Internet

South Region

ACME’s Scoped Zones

Campus Scope

  • Campus Scope: 239.190.x.x/16
acme s scoped zones2
RP

RP

RP

ACME’s Scoped Zones

Regional Scope

Australia

North

America

ASIAPAC

China

Canada

East Coast

US

India

Japan

West Coast

US

Core

North

Region

EMEA

Eastern

Region

Internet

South Region

  • Regional Scope : 239.191.x.x/16
acme s scoped zones3
ACME’s Scoped Zones

Enterprise Scope

Australia

North

America

ASIAPAC

China

Canada

East Coast

US

India

Japan

West Coast

US

Core

North

Region

EMEA

Eastern

Region

Internet

South Region

  • Enterprise Scope: 239.192.x.x/14
    • i.e. Org-Local Scope
acme s scoped zones4
ACME’s Scoped Zones

Global (Internet) Scope

Australia

North

America

ASIAPAC

China

Canada

East Coast

US

India

Japan

West Coast

US

Core

North

Region

EMEA

Eastern

Region

Internet

South Region

  • Global Scope: 224.0.1.x – 238.255.255.255
acme s address assignments
ACME’s Address Assignments

239.0.0.0

  • Enterprise scope = RFC 2365 Org-Local
  • Keep Local scope separate.
    • Avoids moving applications when smaller scopes are added later.
  • Lots of other ways to assign this space.

239.190.0.0

Campus

Scope (/16)

239.191.0.0

Region

Scope (/16)

239.192.0.0

Enterprise

Scope (/14)

RFC 2365Organization-Local Scope

239.196.0.0

239.255.0.0

RFC 2365

Local

Scope

239.255.255.255

solution
Solution
  • Multicast Address Discovery Protocol
    • Very light-weight
    • Assumes no support infrastructure other than:
      • IP Multicast
      • RFC 2365 Administratively Scoped Zones
        • Well-Known Scopes (Local & Org. Local Scopes)
        • Scope Relative Addresses
    • Runs entirely in Application Clients and Servers
madp basics
MADP Basics
  • Uses a single Scope Relative Address
  • Clients send Queries on this address
    • Request info on what multicast address(es)application “X” is using.
    • Initial Queries sent in the Local Scope.
    • If no response, then queries the Org-Local Scope.
  • Servers listen on these addresses.
    • When a Request is received, they check to see if they are the Server for application “X”.
    • If so, they send a Response containing multicast address information.
      • Address information was preconfigured by network admin.
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