Tips & Tricks in dealing with a surgical bleeding field Ismail A. Al-Badawi, FRCSC Section Head, Gynecology/Oncology & MIS King Faisal Specialist Hospital& Research Center Associate Professor, Alfaisal University
Introduction • 150,000 women worldwide bleed to death each year while giving birth ! • 10 deaths per 100,000 deliveries in developed countries ! • In Developing countries = 1000: 100,000 delivery ! • 1/3 of women with PPH have no identified risk factors ! • 80 – 93 % of all deaths due to bleeding are avoidable!
Causes Of Maternal Mortality Confidential Enquiry Of Maternal Death In UK 2007
56 422 deliveries 16 maternal deaths overall MMR of 28.4/100 000 total births 81.25% direct obstetrical causes 18.75% indirect causes MMR due to direct causes was 23.4/100 000 deliveries. The trend in MMR in the unit remained almost the same over the years Obstetric haemorrhage was responsible for 43.75% maternal deaths Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (April 2004) Vol. 24, No. 3, 259–263
Types Of Bleeding Surgical : • Premature Placental Separation ( AbruptioPlacenta) . • Uterine Atony . • Uterine Rupture . • Placenta Praevia . • Placenta Accreta / Percreta . • Emergency LSCS .
Types Of Bleeding Medical : • D. I. C ( Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy ) . • HELLP Syndrome ! • Amniotic Fluid Embolus ! • Oncology cases !
Obstetrical Hemorrhage Maternal Deaths • Abruptio placenta – 19 percent . • Uterine rupture – 16 percent . • Uterine Atony – 15 percent . • Coagulation disorder – 14 percent . • Placenta previa – 7 percent . • Placenta accreta – 6 percent . • Retained placenta – 4 percent . Chichaki, et al, 1999 Causes of 763 Deaths due to hemorrhage
Primary PPH • No Universally Accepted Definition ! • Blood loss within 24 hours of delivery : >500 mL following vaginal delivery ! >1000 mL following caesarean delivery ! • Decrease in haematocrit level >10 % of prenatal value ! • Any bleeding that results (or could result, if untreated) in signs of maternal haemodynamic instability !
Obstetric Hemorrhage • If Hemorrhage is not controlled by medications, massage, manual uterine exploration, or suturing lacerations in the birth canal, then surgical or radiological options must be considered. • IN general, avoid a “watch and wait” approach to the bleeding patient.
- Obstetrical Hemorrhage - Significant PPH Failed Medical Rx Atony/Tears/ Rupture PL Previa / Accreta • Local mattress sutures • Hemostatic balloons / Packing • U.A.E. • Stepwize devascularization • Internal Iliac artery ligation • • TAH • B-Lynch procedure • Uterine a. ligation • Stepwize devascularization • Uterine repair • U.A.E. • Internal Iliac artery ligation • • TAH
- Obstetrical Hemorrhage - Multidisciplinary “Hemorrhage protocol” Identify Patients at Risk Clinical Management of PPH
- Obstetrical Hemorrhage - • -Pl previa/accreta • Anticoagulation Rx • Coagulopathy • Overdistended uterus • Grand multiparity • Abn labor pattern • Chorioamnionitis • Large myomas • Previous history of PPH 1. Identify pat. at risk
Maternal Mortality - Obstetrical Hemorrhage - 1. Prepare for PPH Personnel Drugs/Equipment -Nursing -Anesthesia - Surgical assistance - Blood Bank - ICU Team -Methergine -Hemabate - Mesopristol -Cytotec -Colloids - Blood products -Surgical Instruments -Hemostatic balloons ( Cook, S-B, Foley)
Maternal Mortality - Obstetrical Hemorrhage - Pre-delivery management Patients at risk 1.- Prepare for PPH 2.- Optimize patient’s hemodynamic status 3.- Timing of Delivery 4.- Surgical planning 5.- Anesthesia /I.V. access/ invasive monitoring 6.- Modify obstetrical management 7.- Increased postpartum/post op surveillance
- Obstetrical Hemorrhage - 2. Optimize hemodynamic status Acute isovolemic hemodilution ! 2. Preoperative transfusion ! 3. Cell Saver !
- Obstetrical Hemorrhage - Identify Patients at Risk Multidisciplinary “Hemorrhage protocol” Clinical management of PPH 1.- How/Who triggers the “H.P.” 2.- Identify “The response team” 3.- Transfusion protocol 4.- Define the logistics involved 5.- Conduct drills 6.- Post-op care
Maternal Mortality - Obstetrical Hemorrhage - Multidisciplinary “Hemorrhage protocol” Clinical management of PPH Identify Patients at Risk 1. How/Who triggers the “H.P.” ??? The OB Consultant on call for L+D ! The Head Nurse of L+D Initiate the H.P ! A single number paging system ! Over Head Calling System !
Maternal Mortality - Obstetrical Hemorrhage - Multidisciplinary “Hemorrhage protocol” Clinical management of PPH Identify Patients at Risk 2 - The “Response Team” • Nursing • Anesthesia • Ob surgery (MFM, Gyn Onc, Ob-Gyn,) • Intervention Radiology • Hematology
Maternal Mortality - Obstetrical Hemorrhage - Identify Patients at Risk Multidisciplinary “Hemorrhage protocol” Clinical management of PPH 3 - Transfusion Protocol • -Immediate release of O neg Blood if required • - How fast can Crossmatched blood be made available ! • Physical transport of Blood O.R. and samples from O.R. Lab / Blood Bank ! • Availability of different products !
Emergency group O Rh D negative units can be given while the patient’s blood group is being determined. Immediately Un-crosshatched ABO group specific blood can be provided. 15 min after receipt of sample in blood bank • As soon as thepatient’s blood group has been determined a switch should be made from O • Rh (D) negative blood to ABO group specific blood. Medical staff must accept full responsibility for administration of un-crosshatched blood– the patient may have • unidentified / undetected antibodies – the use of un-crosshatched blood in these patients may result in a life threatening Haemolytic Transfusion Reaction. Fully crosshatched blood can be provided in most cases. 45 min after receipt of sample in blood bank Requesting of blood products
The Re-emergence of uterine packing • Although uterine packing was advocated for treating PPH in the past, it fell out of use largely due to concerns of concealed hemorrhage and uterine over distension. • In recent years, however, several modifications of this procedure have allayed these concerns. • Balloon tamponade has been shown to effectively control some types of postpartum bleeding, and may be useful in several settings: placental Praevia and placenta accreta.
The re-emergence of uterine packing The Foley catheter procedure. • A Foley catheter with a 30-mL balloon capacity is easy to acquire and may routinely be stocked on labor and delivery suites. • Using 24F Foley catheter, the tip is guided into the uterine cavity and inflated with 30 mL of saline. • Additional Foley catheters can be inserted if necessary up to 5 catheters. If bleeding stops, the patient can be observed with the catheters in place and then removed after 12 to 24 hours.
The re-emergence of uterine packing The Sengstaken-Blakemore tube. • Originally developed for the tamponade of bleeding esophageal varices, the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube has the advantage over the Foley catheter due to the larger capacity of its balloon ! • The Sengstaken-Blakemore tube has an open tip that permits continuous drainage. • Like the Foley catheter, the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube should be guided through the cervix into the uterus and the balloon can then be inflated up to 150 cc to achieve the desired tamponade and can be removed in 12 to 24 hours.
The re-emergence of uterine packing Bakri SOS Balloon. • It is 250 – 500 cc capacity silicon- made balloon, designed specifically to take the shape of the uterine cavity to act as a tamponade with a drainage hole in the tip of the balloon catheter to allow blood drainage if collected above the balloon.
The re-emergence of uterine packing After C- Section: • When the balloon is placed at the time of cesarean delivery, an assistant working from below helps pull the distal end of the balloon shaft through the cervix into the vagina. • The hysterotomy incision is closed • The balloon is filled with 250 to 500 mL of sterile isotonic fluid • The distal end of the balloon is attached to a weight, such as a liter intravenous fluid bag, to ensure that a tamponade effect is maintained.
The re-emergence of uterine packing After vaginal delivery : • A Foley catheter is inserted in the bladder to monitor urine output and reduce bladder volume ! • The uterus is examined to ensure that there are no retained placental fragments ! • The balloon is inserted into the uterus so that the entire balloon is past the internal cervical os ! • Using a syringe, the balloon is filled with sterile saline to the desired volume—again, typically, 250 to 500 mL • Gentle downward traction is placed on the balloon stem to ensure that a tamponade effect is maintained
Selective Arterial Embolization • If the patient is stable and bleeding is not excessive, and if interventional radiology is available, then pelvic arteriography may show the site of blood loss and therapeutic arterial embolization may suffice to stop the bleeding.
Selective arterial embolization • With gelfoam pledgets, coils, or a balloon catheter, the targeted artery is occluded. • Unlike other interventions, SAE can be highly effective when coagulopathy is present. • Although long-term follow-up is unavailable for most of the reported cases, menses typically returns within 3 months, and subsequent normal pregnancies have resulted.
Selective arterial embolization • When women are at increased risk for PPH (suspected accreta, previa), catheters can be placed prophylactically, prior to a planned C/S delivery in anticipation of need. • Many studies found that prophylactically placed catheters reduced the total blood loss and incidence of coagulopathy, compared with catheterization performed in an emergent setting.
Surgical Compression Suture • In recent years, interest has surged in the surgical compression suture for treating PPH brought on by uterine atony. • B-Lynch suture initially described by Christopher B-Lynch in 1997 has gained the most popularity .
Surgical Compression Suture The theory behind each technique is the same: • The mechanical compression of uterine vascular sinuses prevents further engorgement with blood and continued hemorrhage.
Surgical Compression Suture • A woman meets the criteria for the B-Lynch compression suture if bimanual compression decreases the amount of uterine bleeding by abdominal inspection.
Surgical Compression Suture • Although originally described using No. 2 chromic catgut, variations using No.1 Vicryl suture have been equally successful. • In our experience, we have also used No. 1 chromic catgut and 0 loop PDS suture with no complications noted. • There are theoretical concerns about bowel complications with PDS suture because the suture material may not completely degrade for up to 6 months.