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Leadership and Administrative Dynamics. Eckerd Fall 2011. Agenda Myers Briggs exercise. Organization theories. Read memos in class. Bureaucracy Scientific Management Universal Management Principles Classical Theories in modern organizations Human Relations approaches

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agenda myers briggs exercise
AgendaMyers Briggs exercise

Organization theories

Read memos in class.


Scientific Management

Universal Management Principles

Classical Theories in modern organizations

Human Relations approaches

Human Resources Model

Open Systems

Contemporary Developments

Contingency Theories

Memo writing

what is myers briggs
What is Myers Briggs

Carl Jung

  • Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology
  • Father of Myers Briggs Type Indicator
  • Jung believed:
  • Eight psychological types (for our purposes two)
    • Introverted and extroverted.
    • Four main functions of consciousness
      • Two perceiving functions – sensation and intuition
      • Two judging functions – thinking and feeling
myers briggs
Myers Briggs
  • There are certain preferred ways of thinking and acting.
  • There is not a better or worse type.
  • Four pairs of opposites equal 16 possible psychological types.
why is this important to a leader
Why is this important to a leader?
  • It is important to know yourself as a supervisor.
  • It is equally important to know who you are supervising.

Pre-Scientific Management (Pre-1800s)

  • Classical Management (1800-1930)
    • Administrative Theory/Universalism (Henri Fayol)
    • Scientific Management (Federick Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, Henry Gantt-“Gantt Chart”)
    • Structuralist School (Max Weber-“bureaucracy”)
  • Neoclassical Management and Organization Theory (1930-1960s)
    • Human Relations School (Human Relations/Hawthorne Experiments)
    • Behavioral School (Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Rensis Likert, Chris Argyris, Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland)
  • Modern Management and Organization Theory (1960-2000s)
    • Management Science (OM, MRP, JIT, CI, TQM)
    • Systems Theory (Peter Senge)(Subsystems, Open/Closed)
    • Contingency Theory (Open Systems Planning, Organizational Design, Leadership)
extraverted introverted e i
Extraverted/Introverted (E/I)

At work

  • In general:

Introvert Extrovert

Reflects then acts ACTION!

Needs time alone Needs people

Deep interaction Breadth of knowledge

Prefers depth of knowledge Frequent interaction

extrovert introvert
Extrovert / Introvert

Introvert – 30% of US population

  • Let me think about it.
  • Quiet please!
  • Prefer to work alone.
  • Even if they know working in a team is important, they will still need “alone time” to re-energize.

Extrovert – 70% US population

  • Let’s talk about it. (extracts information externally)
  • Loud
  • Prefer environments where co-workers are talking.
  • Do not like long intervals of working alone.
  • Want to work with other people in teams.
dark side particularly in a leader
Dark Side – particularly in a leader


  • Seems to have decided but is really just thinking.
  • Staff observe introverts to be aloof and unfriendly.
  • If dismissed in discussions, they will retreat and not provide valuable input.


  • Seems to have decided but are just processing out loud.
  • Can overwhelm
  • Can dominate the conversation
sensing intuition s n
Sensing/intuition (S/N)

At work

  • How do we gather information

Sensing Intuition

Details/fact abstract, theoretical

Information that touches the 5 senses unconscious mind




  • Work NEEDs to be organized from point A to point B and so on.
  • Loves policies, procedures, repetition and rules
  • Have to start from point A.


  • Thinks conceptually at the 30,000 foot level.
  • Policies, procedures, repetition and rules are boring.
  • May start by considering the outcome first.


  • Do the work.
  • Prefer to work at one project at a time and even better if the projects are in order.
  • Long-term stamina to complete a project.


  • Conceive the work
  • Major multi-taskers
  • Energy bursts
dark side
Dark Side


  • Details and simplistic explanations are points of frustration.
  • Get to the bottom line!
  • May make decisions that are unrealistic based on what could be vs. what is.


  • Future oriented tasks are not appealing.
  • Can’t see the forest for the trees syndrome.
feeling thinking t f
Feeling/Thinking (T/F)

Once we get the data from either sensing or intuition

  • How do we judge? How do we make decisions?

Thinking Feeling

Logical empathy

Rational consensus

“Business approach” balance


dark side1
Dark Side


  • Can be perceived as uncaring and cold
  • Staff may have hurt feelings
  • No crying!


  • May appear naïve
  • Poor decision making to spare feelings
  • Time not effectively utilized trying to make staff feel better.
judgment perception j p
Judgment/perception (J/P)

Once we get the data from either sensing or intuition

  • How do we judge? How do we make decisions?

Judging Perceiving

  • I like to stay open to respond to whatever happens.
  • I appear to be loose and casual. I like to keep plans to a minimum.
  • I like to approach work as play or mix work and play.
  • I work in bursts of energy.
  • I am stimulated by an approaching deadline.
  • Sometimes I stay open to new information so long I miss making decisions when they are needed.
  • I like to have things decided.
  • I appear to be task oriented.
  • I like to make lists of things to do.
  • I like to get my work done before playing.
  • I plan work to avoid rushing just before a deadline.
  • Sometimes I focus so much on the goal that I miss new information.
judging vs perceiving
Judging vs. Perceiving



  • Makes decision in order to solve the problem and move on.
  • Strong planners
  • Strong organizers
  • Work is much more important than personal life/having a good time.
  • Delays decision making to gain more information.
  • Last minute vs. planners
  • Personal life/having a good time

is more


than work.



  • Routine
  • Order
  • Do not like open ended issues
  • Can motivate themselves
  • The goal is getting there.
  • Adaptable
  • Process and processing is good.
  • Need motivation from others.
  • Life is a sojourn and so is work.
dark side2
Dark Side



  • Resistance to change
  • Decisions made to quickly
  • Focus is not at 30,000 foot level enough
  • May not get things accomplished in a timely way.
  • May be off on another tangent while staff are still working

on the first


theories compared
Theories compared



  • Context: factory work, under-educated workers. (assembly lines)
  • People can be organized through measured steps to deliver the best outcome.
  • Staff do not participate in decision making (to varying degrees).
  • Hierarchical.
  • Informal peer leaders.
  • Routine jobs.
  • Division of labor.
  • Functional departments.
  • Hierarchical supervision.
  • Management by control.
  • Administrative setting, well-educated professionals.
  • People need to be challenged, work together, trust each other.
  • Staff participates in decision making (to varying degrees).
  • Flatter organizational structure
  • Formal teams.
  • Complex jobs.
  • Continuous learning.
  • Ecosystem is world-wide

Refined at the turn of the century, by Frederick Taylor (scientific management), Henri Fayol (principles and elements of management), and Max Weber (bureaucracy), this is the management philosophy that still dominates our organizational landscape.

In 1847, a professor in political science at Heidelberg, Robert von Mohl, observed that:

"the privileged classes complained of loss of privileges, the commercial classes of interference in commerce, artisans of paperwork, scientists of ignorance, statesmen of delay."


Social and Economic differences can be mitigated through the law

what are rules
What are rules?
  • Rules can assist with interpretation of ambiguous worlds.
  • Rules define the world.
    • roles, rights, obligations, interests, values, worldviews, and memory
  • Rules can mean change.
  • Rules can fulfill the “invisible veil”


  • Rules need flexibility and discretion.
  • Rules are not inflexible, people are
  • inflexible.
scientific management
Scientific Management

Taylor (1856-1915)

  • mass production
  • low cost,
  • acceptable quality
  • organizing large numbers of under-educated and/or non-English speaking immigrants
  • non-technical
  • rural workers for

urban technical


fayol 1841 1925
Fayol (1841-1925)







  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Staffing
  • Budgeting
  • Coordinating
  • Controlling
  • Fayol considered the need for staff to participate

in decision making.

fayol continued
Fayol continued
  • 1. division of labor
  • 2. the establishment of authority
  • 3. the enforcement of discipline
  • 4. unified command, one employee reports to only one supervisor
  • 5. unity of direction
  • 6. subordination of individual interests to the interest of the organization
  • 7. fair salaries
  • 8. Centralized authority
  • 9. Scalar hierarchy, in which each employee is aware of his or her place and duties
  • 10. a sense of order and purpose
  • 11. Equity and fairness in dealings between staff and managers
  • 12. stability of jobs and positions
  • 13. development of individual initiative
  • 14. esprit de corps
human relations approaches
Human Relations Approaches
  • Conclusions
      • Group activity, collaboration and the role of informal teams.
      • Social world of adults
      • Belonging
      • Complaining
      • Social demands
  • Elton Mayo
      • Western Electric experiments

McGregor Theory X and Theory Y

Buying a pair of hands

Building people

human resources approach

Theory X

Theory Y



Work is Natural

Must be








Seek Security

Good Decisions

Widely Dispersed

Human Resources Approach
  • Douglas McGregor
chris argyris classical organization structures lead to immature dependent staff
Chris Argyris – classical organization structures lead to immature, dependent staff



open systems peter senge
Open Systems Peter Senge

Teams COMMUNICATE more than individuals operating alone.

Leadership is key element to implementing and sustaining a learning environment.

Leaders are responsible for promoting an atmosphere conducive to learning

CREATIVE TENSION - Represents difference between the “vision” of where the organization

could be and the reality of the current

organizational situation.

  • Systems Theory is NOT a prescriptive management theory
  • Attempts to widen lens through which we examine and understand organizational behavior
  • The Learning Organization
    • Synergy
    • Nonsummativity
    • Interdependence
    • Equifinality
    • Requisite Variety
    • Emphasizes COMMUNICATION in the Learning Process
  • Organizations cannot separate from their environment
  • Organizational teams or subsystems cannot operate in isolation