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MODULE A - 4. MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS & SCIENTIFIC NOTATION. OBJECTIVES. At the end of this module, the student will be able to… Identify and compare the systems of measurement used in the clinical setting. Identify the standard prefixes used in the metric system

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module a 4

MODULE A - 4

MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS & SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

objectives
OBJECTIVES
  • At the end of this module, the student will be able to…
    • Identify and compare the systems of measurement used in the clinical setting.
    • Identify the standard prefixes used in the metric system
    • State the metric units of length, mass, volume, time, and temperature.
    • Distinguish between the metric units for liquid (mL) and solid volume (cc) measurements.
measurement systems
Measurement systems
  • Method of quantifying matter
    • Solids, liquids & gases
  • Quantities include:
    • Length
    • Area
    • Weight
    • Volume
    • Pressure
    • Temperature
    • Time
  • Systems used in medicine:

A. Conventional

B. Metric

C. Standard International

conventional systems
Conventional Systems
  • Also known as:
    • British
    • English
    • U.S Customary
    • (FPS) foot, pound, second
  • Commonly used in U.S.

FPS

examples of length area
Examples of length & area

12 inches = 1 foot

3 feet (36 inches) = 1 yard

220 yards = 1 furlong

8 furlongs = 1 mile

1,760 yards = 1 mile

5,280 feet = 1 mile

1 sq. foot (foot2) = 122 sq. inches

1 sq. yard (yard2) = 9 sq. feet

43,560 sq. feet = 1 acre

1 sq. mile (mile2) = 640 acres

examples of liquid measure
Examples of liquid measure

1 teaspoon (tsp) = 1/3 tablespoon

2 tablespoon (tbsp) = 1 fluid ounce

1 fluid ounce (oz) = 1/8 cup

2 fluid ounces = 1/4 cup

2 2/3 fluid ounces = 1/3 cup

4 fluid ounces = 1/2 cup

5 1/3 fluid ounces = 2/3 cup

6 fluid ounces = 3/4 cup

8 fluid ounces = 1 cup

2 cups (c) = 1 pint

2 liquid pints (pt) = 1 liquid quart (qt)

4 liquid pints = 1 gallon (gal)

examples of dry measure
Examples of dry measure

1 dry quart = 2 dry pints

8 dry pints = 1 peck

4 pecks = 1 bushel

standard international si
Standard International (SI)
  • Simplified modification of metric system.
  • Worldwide effort started in 1960s to standardize to this system.
  • Also known as:
    • (MKS) meter, kilogram, second

MKS

metric system
Metric System
  • Developed in Europe.
  • Has all units based on multiples of 10.
  • Also known as:
    • (CGS) centimeter, gram, second

CGS

measurements in respiratory therapy
Measurements in Respiratory Therapy
  • Length
    • Meter (m)
  • Volume
    • Liter (L)
  • Mass
    • Gram (g)
  • Time
    • Seconds (sec)
  • Temperature
    • Centigrade (Celsius), Kelvin, Fahrenheit
  • Pressure
    • Centimeters of Water (cm H2O), Pounds per square inch (psi), Millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), Torr, Pascal (Pa), and Atmospheres (atm)
  • Force
    • Dynes
conversion
Conversion
  • Conversion within the metric system is easy
    • Everything based on multiples of ten.
  • Conversion from one system to the other:
    • Must know the conversion factors.
conversion1
Conversion
  • Conversion within these systems or from one system to the other:
    • You Must know how to do metric conversions.
    • I will provide the S.I. and conventional factors on an exam or quiz.
      • There are too many to memorize.
  • Gimli Glider & Mars Climate Orbiter
basic fundamental units
Basic (fundamental) Units
  • Basic unit has value of one. (1x100 = 1)
    • One Liter
      • Smaller - milliliter
      • Larger - kiloliter
    • One Gram
      • Smaller – microgram
      • Larger - hectogram
    • One Meter
      • Smaller - decimeter
      • Larger - Megameter

Larger

Smaller

Opposite of the number line

slide15

Metric Chart

Basic or Fundamental Unit

Liter

Gram

Meter

105 104 103 102 101 100 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5

|-------|-------|-------|-------|-------|-------|-------|-------|------|-------|

kilo hecto deca deci centi milli

x1000 x100 x10

(k) (h) (da) (d) (c) (m)

LARGER SMALLER

greek prefixes units to the left of the basic unit and larger
Greek Prefixes - Units to the left of the basic unit and larger.
  • BASIC UNIT = One Liter, Gram or Meter
      • 10 1 deca (da) 10 x larger 10
      • 10 2 hecto (h) 100 x larger 100
      • 10 3 kilo (k) 1000 x larger 1000
      • 10 4
      • 10 5
      • 10 6 Mega (M) 1,000,000x 1,000,000
      • 10 7
      • 10 8
      • 10 9 Giga (G) 1,000,000,000x 1,000,000,000
latin prefixes units to the right of the basic unit and smaller
Latin Prefixes Units to the right of the basic unit and smaller.
  • BASIC UNIT = One Liter, Gram or Meter
  • 10 -1deci (d); 10 x smaller; 1/10; x 0.1
  • 10 -2centi (c); 100 x smaller; 1/100; x 0.01
  • 10 -3milli (m); 1000 x smaller; 1/1,000; x 0.001
  • 10 -4
  • 10 -5
  • 10 -6micro (m) or (mc); 1,000,000 x smaller; 1/1,000,000; x 0.000001
  • 10 -7
  • 10 -8
  • 10 -9nano (n); 1,000,000,000 x smaller; 1/1,000,000,000; x 0.000000001
  • 10-10Angstrom (Å); 10,000,000,000 x smaller; 1/10,000,000,000; x 0.0000000001
scientific notation
Scientific Notation
  • A method of expressing the value of a very small or very large number.
  • Scientific Notation: (baseexponent)
    • Base is the numberto be multiplied by itself (usually 10).
    • Exponent is the number of times it is multiplied.
  • 103 = 10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000
scientific notation1
Scientific Notation
  • Example:
    • A kilometer is 1,000 times larger than a meter
    • Count the zeros (that equals exponent)
    • 103
    • 10x10x10 times larger
scientific notation2
Scientific Notation
  • Example:
    • Angstrom (Å) is 10 billion times smaller than a meter (m)
    • That is…10,000,000,000 times smaller
    • Count the zeros to determine exponent

oror

    • Can also be written as 0.0000000001
    • 10x10x10x10x10x10x10x10x10x10 times smaller
numbers and exponents
Numbers and Exponents

100 = 1 a x 100 = a

101 = 10 a x 101 = a x 10

102 = 100 a x 102 = a x 100

103 = 1000 a x 103 = a x 1000

106 = 1,000,000 a x 106 = a x 1,000,000

109 = 1,000,000,000 a x 109 = a x 1,000,000,000

10-1 = 0.1 a x 10-1 = a x 0.1

10-2 = 0.01 a x 10-2 = a x 0.01

10-3 = 0.001 a x 10-3 = a x 0.001

10-6 = 0.000001 a x 10-6 = a x 0.000001

10-9 = 0.000000001 a x 10-9 = a x 0.000000001

numbers and exponents1
Numbers and Exponents

Positive exponent = # of zeros

5 x 100 = 5

5 x 101 = 50

5 x 102 = 500

5 x 103 = 5000

5 x 106 = 5,000,000

5 x 109 = 5,000,000,000

Negative exponent = # of decimalplaces

5 x 10-1 = 0.5

5 x 10-2 = 0.05

5 x 10-3 = 0.005

5 x 10-6 = 0.000005

5 x 10-9 = 0.000000005

examples avogadro s number
Examples - Avogadro’s Number

Expresses the number of atoms in one mole of a gas

Long form:

602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms

Scientific notation:

6.02 x 10 23 atoms

Process: Count over to the left, the number of decimal places to get a number between 1 & 10

example mass of an electron
Example - Mass of an electron

Long Form:

0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 grams

Scientific Notation:

9.11 x 10-31 grams

Process: Count over to the right the number of decimal places necessary to get a number between 1 and 10

practice express the following exponentially
Practice: Express the following exponentially
  • 500 = 5 x 102

(count over to left 2 decimal places)

  • 93,000,000 = _________________
  • 0.0003 = _________________
  • 0.000000024 = _________________
exponent relationship to basic unit
Exponent Relationship to Basic Unit
  • Negative exponents are smaller (10 –3)
  • Positive exponents are larger (10 3)

If the metric system was money…

| | | | | |

$1,000.00 $100.00 $10.00 $1.00 10 cent 1cent

0.10

Basic Unit

0.01

why is ml and cc cm 3 the same
Why is mL and cc (cm3) the same?
  • Cubic centimeter (cc or cm3) and millimeter (mL) are used interchangeably in medicine.
    • The unit cc is a length measurement.
    • The unit mL is a volume measure.
  • A cube 1 cm long x 1 cm wide by 1 cm high (l x w x h = area) will hold 1 mL of liquid volume.
  • We therefore use the units interchangeably.
    • 1 cc or cm3 = 1 mL
slide29

The volume of this cube

is one mL.

1 cm deep

1 cm high

Cubic centimeter

1 mL = 1 cc = 1 cm3

1 cm length

additional conversion factors
Additional Conversion Factors

Length:

1 meter = 39.37 inches

1 cm = .3937 inches

1 km = 0.62 miles

Volume:

1 mL = 1 cc = 1 cm3

1 L = 1.0567 qts.

946 mL = 1 qt.

1 pint = 473 mL

1 kg = 2.2 pounds (lbs)

1 lb = 454 grams