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Themes and challenges of Modern Science PowerPoint Presentation
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Themes and challenges of Modern Science

Themes and challenges of Modern Science

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Themes and challenges of Modern Science

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  1. Themes and challenges of Modern Science • Complexity out of simplicity – Microscopic • How the world, with all its apparent complexity and diversity can be constructed out of a few elementary building blocks and their interactions • Simplicity out of complexity – Macroscopic • How the world of complex systems can display such remarkable regularity and simplicity individual excitations of nucleons vibration rotation fission

  2. The three faces of the shell model

  3. 208Pb → 209Bi Elab = 5 MeV/u 1 i13/2 1609 keV 2 f7/2 896 keV 1 h9/2 0 keV Experimental single-particle energies γ-spectrum single-particle energies

  4. 208Pb → 207Pb Elab = 5 MeV/u Experimental single-particle energies γ-spectrum single-hole energies 3 p3/2 898 keV 2 f5/2 570 keV 3 p1/2 0 keV

  5. Experimental single-particle energies particle states 1 i13/2 209Pb 209Bi 1609 keV 2 f7/2 896 keV 1 h9/2 0 keV energy of shell closure: 207Tl 207Pb hole states protons neutrons

  6. Level scheme of 210Pb 2846 keV 2202 keV 1558 keV 1423 keV 779 keV 0.0 keV -1304 keV (pairing energy) M. Rejmund Z.Phys. A359 (1997), 243

  7. Evolution of nuclear structure as a funtion of nucleon number

  8. Experimental observables in even-even nuclei 1000 4+ 400 2+ 0 0+ Jπ E ( keV)

  9. Systematics of the Te isotopes (Z=52) (Z = 52) Neutron number6870 72 74 76 78 80 82 Val. Neutr. number1412 10 8 6 4 2 0

  10. Systematics of the Te isotopes (Z=52) (Z = 52) 6+ 1.63 1.69 4+ 2+ 4+ 1.59 1.58 2+ 1.28 1.16 2+ 4+ 1.20 0+ 1.10 2+ 0.84 2+ 0.56 0+ 0+ 0+ 120Te 130Te 134Te Case of few valence nucleons: lowering of energies, development of multiplets. R4/2 → ~2-2.4

  11. Electric fields of multipoles (Z = 52) In general the electric potential due to an arbitrary charge distribution is expansion multipole moments special case: electric quadrupole potential special case: electric quadrupole matrixelement B(E2)-value: