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WHAP Ch. 9 . Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe.

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whap ch 9

WHAP Ch. 9

Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

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Belisarius - Greek fire - Bulgaria - Ravenna Hellenistic culture - Byzantine Empire – Balkans - Manzikert – Constantine -Tsar Basil II - Hagia Sophia - Justinian – Theodora – Huns - Sassanian - Empire Procopius – icons - iconoclasm - Cyril and Methodius - Rurik - Vladimir I - Russian Orthodoxy - Theodora and Zoë - Cyrillic alphabet - Magyars - Yaroslav I - boyars - Tatars - Constantinople - Orthodox Christian church

the byzantine empire1
The Byzantine Empire
  • The Byzantine Empire, once part of the greater Roman Empire
  • Emperor Constantine in the 4th century C.E. established a capital at Constantinople
  • It continued flourishing after the Roman decline.
  • Although it inherited and continued some of Rome’s patterns, the eastern Mediterranean state developed its own form of civilization
justinian s achievements
Justinian's Achievements
  • Justinian - 6th-century Byzantine emperor; tried & failed to reconquer the western portions of the empire; he rebuilt Constantinople; codified Roman law, this reduced legal confusion in the empire.
  • The code later spread Roman legal concepts throughout Europe.
  • Slavs, Persians attack from east
  • Building projects - Hagia Sophia
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Empire's Defenses

  • Center of empire shifts to east
  • Constant external threats from Arab Muslims and the Bulgars(a semi-nomadic people from in the Volga basin in the 7th century.)
  • Bulgaria was a strong rival, but Basil II defeated and conquered it in the 11th century.
byzantine society and politics
Byzantine Society and Politics
  • Emperors resemble Chinese rulers - Court rituals - Head of church and state – theocracy
  • Sophisticated bureaucracy - Open to all classes - Provincial governors hold local power
  • State Economic control - Regulation of food prices, trade and Silk production
  • Huge trade network - Asia, Russia, Scandinavia, Europe, Africa
  • Arts – Religious - Creativity in architecture
the split between eastern and western christianity
The Split Between Eastern and Western Christianity
  • Separate paths - Patriarch Michael - 1054, attacks Catholic practice - Mutual excommunication
  • The Empire's Decline - Period of decline from 11th century
  • Seljuk Turks - Take most of Asian provinces - 1071, Battle of Manzikert: Turk victory over Byzantium; resulted in loss of the empire’s rich Anatolian territory
  • Slavic states will start to emerge
  • Crusaders, led by Venetian merchants, sacked Constantinople in 1204.
  • A smaller empire will struggle to survive for another two centuries against western Europeans, Muslims, and Slavic kingdoms.
  • In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople.
the spread of civilization in eastern europe
The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe
  • Influence through conquest, conversion, trade
  • Cyril and Methodius devised a written script for the Slavic language, providing a base for literacy in eastern Europe.
  • Unlike western Christians, the Byzantines allowed the use of local languages in church services.
competition
Competition
  • Both eastern and western missionaries competed in eastern Europe.
  • Roman Catholics, and their Latin alphabet, prevailed in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland.
    • The region became a long-standing site of competition between the two influences.
  • A series of regional monarchies—Poland, Bohemia, Lithuania—with powerful land-owning aristocracies developed.
  • Eastern Europe also received an influx of Jews from the Middle East and western Europe.
    • They were often barred from agriculture but participated in local commerce.
    • They maintained their own traditions and emphasized education for males.
the emergence of kievan rus
The Emergence of Kievan Rus'
  • Slavs from Asia they are Iron working, extend agriculturist
    • Mix with earlier populations
    • Family tribes, villages – Kingdoms - Animistic
  • 6th, 7th centuries trade with Scandinavian merchants
  • Trade between Byzantines and the North
  • c. 855, monarchy under Rurik move the Center to Kiev
  • Vladimir I (980-1015) Converts to Orthodoxy and Controls the church
culture in kievan rus
Culture in Kievan Rus'
  • Influenced by Byzantine patterns of art & architecture
  • Orthodox influence - Ornate churches
  • Icons - Monastic
      • Art, literature dominated by religion, royalty
  • Free farmers predominant
  • Boyars, landlords - Less powerful than in

the West

kievan decline
Kievan Decline
  • Decline from 12th century – Rival governments - Succession struggles
  • Asian conquerors- Mongols (Tartars)

13th century, take territory

Traditional culture survives

  • The Mongol invasions usher in new period
    • East and West Europe further separated