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Chapter 19. The World Since 1945 – an overview. The 3 worlds. The Changing political climate. The balance of power changed dramatically after WW2 European influences went down while the US & USSR emerged as the world’s superpowers The collapse of overseas western empires occurred

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chapter 19

Chapter 19

The World Since 1945 – an overview

the changing political climate
The Changing political climate
  • The balance of power changed dramatically after WW2
    • European influences went down while the US & USSR emerged as the world’s superpowers
    • The collapse of overseas western empires occurred
    • The emergence of dozens of new countries
  • 1. Compare and contrast the North (rich) and the South (poor) parts of the world after World War 2.
  • 2. Many regions of the world have seen a struggle between advanced technologies/western culture and the traditional ways. Explain the conflict and give 2 specific examples of these struggles.
  • 3. International interdependence has created many opportunities and also many conflicts. What is international interdependence? Explain how it can be both a good thing and a bad thing.
the changing political climate1
The changing political climate
  • An End to European Colonial Empires
    • Nationalism & Independence
      • Resistance in colonialized countries had begun before the war
      • At first, imperialist countries tried to hold on to their power
      • The US backed the right of people to self-determination
      • The USSR had long condemned western imperialism
    • Different Roads to Freedom
      • In most areas, freedom was achieved peacefully (fairly new)
      • In areas where white colonialists refused to leave, things turned violent (ie- France in Indochina/Vietnam)
    • Global Impact
      • 90 new countries emerged during the “great liberation” p.506
      • Some large/small in population and or size
      • “Developing World” in Africa, Asia and Latin America looked to modernize (stable governments, economic development_
      • Most joined the United Nation
the cold war goes global
The cold war goes global
  • The Cold War divided the world into two sides
    • US & USSR (Superpowers)
    • They competed for influence by offering economic/military aid
    • Each superpower wanted the country to adopt their political ideology
  • Nonaligned Nations
    • Some chose not to take sides to hopefully promote peace and to benefit from working with both superpowers
  • Hot Spots
    • In Africa, Asia and Latin America – disputes broke out
    • The US & USSR took opposing sides in the conflicts
    • China – 1949 –revolution led to communist China (no tie to USSR)
    • “Shooting Wars” occasionally broke out (Korea, Vietnam
the cold war goes global1
The cold war goes global
  • The Cold War Ends – 1991
    • The Soviet Union collapsed and the Cold War ended
    • Many world tensions eased, but other emerged
  • Ethnic and Religious Conflict
    • Within many areas, ethnic &/or religious groups have pushed for more independence so they can protect their culture
      • Kurds in Turkey and Iraq
      • Muslims in Kashmir
      • Christians in East Timor
    • In some of these regions, the struggle of control/power has resulted in violence
new nations seek stability
New nations seek stability
  • After winning independence, most nations have high hopes for a better future
  • Without colonial ties, many nations have no central identity to bind them together
  • Many modeled their new governments after western democracy, but it only worked in a few
    • Little done to prepare leaders in colonialized nations
    • Wealthy, western-educated elite control the power of the government and economy while a huge majority of the people remain very poor
    • Political, cultural, religious infighting for control
    • As problems grow, military leaders often took control (junta)
    • Once in power, they build one-party dictatorships
    • Despite all this, democracy did make hold in some African, Asian, and Latin American nations
regional global organizations
Regional & Global Organizations
  • After WW2, the world was more “INTERDEPENDENT”
  • Political, economic, cultural and other links created both opportunities and problems
      • Played vital role in decolonization
      • Peacekeepers (often failed but have tried none the less)
      • UN agencies have provided services for millions worldwide
        • WHO – AIDS crisis, hunger, disease prevention, vaccinations, etc
      • Nations form regional groups for trade, protection, etc
        • GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
        • NAFTA (North American Free Trade Association)
        • G8 – 8 biggest economies promoting economic cooperation
        • World Bank & IMF – make loans to developing nations
global issues
Global issues
  • Deadly Weapons (WMD’s)
    • Since the US dropped 2 atomic bombs, nations of the world have been trying to arm themselves with weapons
    • Nuclear, Biological, Chemical are of global concern
    • 8 countries opening have nuclear weapons, 1 (Israel) won’t confirm
  • Human Rights
    • Human Rights include “the right to life, liberty and security of person”
    • HELSINKI ACCORDS 1975 included speech, religion, fair trial, earn a living and live in safety
    • Despite these, human rights abused still occur. Economic pressure can be used to try to convince nations to stop abusing rights
    • Some countries accuse the world of trying to impose their values on other cultures
  • What is it?
  • Why would someone/a group use terrorism to advance their cause?
  • How do/should countries/people deal with terrorism?
global issues1
Global issues
  • Terrorism
    • Use of terror (especially against civilians) to achieve political goals
    • Groups have used terror as a political tool since the 1960’s (bombings, kidnappings, airplane hijackings, shootings)
    • North Ireland – both sides used bombings
    • 1972 Olympics – Israeli athletes kidnapped
    • 9-11 – suicide planes collapsed the World Trade Center buildings
    • To combat, governments passed tough laws and have increased their watchfulness against plot of terror
  • Intervention
    • Does the world have the obligation to stop human rights abused or stop acts of terrorism?
    • Ethnic conflicts within nations – are they an internal issue or a humans rights issue that
    • UN has a mixed record in intervening in crisis areas
      • Sometimes they do intervene, sometimes they do not
      • No clear reason why/why not
book review
Book review
  • Read section one p.504-509
    • Do questions # 3-6 on p. 509
    • Use p. 510 in your book to complete the VENN diagram at the top of the next worksheet
global trends north south
Global Trends – North/South
  • The Global North and South
    • Rich Nations
      • Industrialized nations of Europe, North America, Japan & Australia
      • Control most of the world’s wealth, standard of living high
      • Most have capitalist economies – FREE MARKETS
      • Governments support economic growth/regulate economies
    • Poor Nations
      • Asia, Africa, Latin America
      • 75% of worlds population and much of natural resources
      • “Asian Tigers”, Oil Rich nations have seen economic progress
      • Not yet developed their economies
      • About 1 billion people live in poverty (many of them children)
    • Migration
      • Gap between rich and poor is widening, despite some development
      • Imbalance cause people to migrate from poor to rich areas
economic interdependence
Economic Interdependence
  • Multinational Corporations have linked nations
    • Rich countries bring technology, advisors, loans, etc
    • Poor countries provide labor force and markets
  • The Oil Crisis
    • 1970’s – Political problems caused oil crisis – gave 3rd world power
    • OPEC created to control world oil markets
    • Rich nations became aware of how dependent they were
  • The Debt Crisis
    • Poor countries owed huge amounts of money to rich (loans)
    • Needed money to modernize and begin to make money to pay off loans
    • Rich nations suffered due to debt crisis as world banks stuck with loans
    • Deal – rich nations would forgive debts in exchange for changes in economic and political structures
economic independence
Economic independence
  • Economic Trouble Spots
      • World Economies are now interdependent
      • When one suffers, it hurts all;
        • when one excels, it helps many
      • Japan 1997 - US 2007 - Europe now
  • Economic Organizations
      • World Bank, IMF lend money to countries in crisis
      • Hopefully stop economies from failing and hurting others
        • Often loans come with “strings” – conditions of the load to change either politically or economically
        • Local people often don’t want the conditions and will revolt against their governments
          • GREECE -TODAY
obstacles poster
Obstacles Poster
  • Get in groups of 5
  • Each member will create a poster about one of the reasons 3rd World Countries find it difficult to develop their economies/nations
obstacles to development
Obstacles to development
  • Geography
      • Few natural resources, difficult climates
  • Population and Poverty
      • Better medical care increases population with limited resources
      • Need for housing, food, jobs, medical care increase without new income
      • Some have tried to slow the growth (China) but face obstacles
  • Economic Dependence
      • Remain dependent on former colonial ruling nation, outside powers for raw materials, markets, help
  • Economic Policies
      • Many new nations choose socialism to help their people
      • With little/no private industry, government cannot raise enough money
      • Costs block other economic growth (Europe, China, Cuba)
  • Political Instability
      • Many countries devastated by internal struggles/wars
      • Corruption - Dictators spend on staying in power rather than helping their people
      • Wars create even more people in need
development the environment
Development & the Environment
  • Growing Threats
    • The Industrial Revolution brought great environmental damage
    • As science began to prove the damage being done, some stepped up
      • ENVIRONMENTALISTS (1970’s) raised the alarm and began to push governments to make laws to protect the environment
        • Chemicals, pesticides
        • Oil spills, Acid Rain
      • GLOBAL WARMING – emissions from products damaged the environment, believed to cause an increase in the temperatures of the world
      • INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS – governments react after and pass laws to prevent
        • Bhopal, India (1984) killed 3,600 people
        • Chernobyl (1986) nuclear melt-down
        • Gulf Oil Spill (2010) damaged ecosystem of the Gulf of Mexico
  • Protecting the Environment
    • Rich nations have the resources and produce much of the pollution
    • Also have often led way to protect the environment
    • Environmental Summits held to get world to work together
old ways and new ways
Old ways and new ways
  • Urbanization
    • Since WW2, people have flocked to cities for job, to escape poverty
    • Today, more than ½ of all people live in cities
    • Often there isn’t enough living space, so “SHANTYTOWNS” pop up
    • City living is more of a “nuclear” family rather than extended family
      • As urban kids are educated, they often reject the ways of their parents
      • The village structure is not there to enforce tradition/older beliefs
  • Westernization
    • People in cities often adopt “western” fashions and ideas
    • Western nations believed their way was better. Often to modernize, cultures feel they need to “westernize” to get ahead
    • It’s a delicate balance to keep culture/religion while modernizing
    • Western beliefs place emphasis on material success and on the individual
old ways and new ways1
Old ways and new ways
  • Village Life
      • In southern half of globe, billions still lived in villages
      • Long hard work the norm, exchange goods/services/news locally
      • Roads, technology have drastically changed village life, connecting villages with the outside, luring many young to the cities
  • Religious Influences
      • Religion shapes society – regardless of which religion
      • Each religion offers solutions to modern problems
      • Fundamentalists stress the basic beliefs/values of their religion
      • Catholic Church – “Liberation Theology” urged members to take amore active role in social conditions
      • Muslims also called for change – rejecting western (secular) ways calling for a return to “Sharia” law
new rights roles for women
New rights/roles for women
  • After WW2, women’s movements began worldwide
  • The West
      • WW2 saw many women enter the workforce, many never left
      • By 1970’s, the “feminist movement” fought for greater access for women in the work world (jobs, pay, treatment)
      • Women advanced as owners, executives, scientists, technicians
      • New roles forced women to balance work with their home duties
      • Some claimed women working led to family problems, others claimed women contributed to the family well-being ($$)
  • The Developing World
      • Many new nations worked on creating equality for women
      • Education gap slowed the process, but women still advanced
      • Middle, upper class (more educated) entered workforce, contributed to the wealth of the nation and their families
      • In poorer regions, women had farm duties along with household duties. As men left for cities to find work, women’s burdens increased even more
      • Religion often places restraints on what is acceptable for women
science and technology
Science and technology
  • Computer Revolution
      • Information revolution had created a world-wide economy
      • E-commerce has brought growth to every region of the world
      • Gap between North and South widens gap of wealth
  • Medical/Biological Breakthroughs
      • Vaccines have saved millions
      • New diseases are posing new challenges for researchers/doctors
      • Organ transplants, advancements in surgical technology(if affordable)
      • Genetic Engineering is a current controversy
  • The Green Revolution
      • New technologies increased food production (more/better foods)
      • Weather plays huge role in food production (North & South)
  • Ongoing Issues
      • Technology (good & bad)
      • Poverty (places insurmountable burden on countries)
a new global culture
A new global culture
  • Westernized Popular Culture
      • Radio, TV, Internet have changed everything
      • Global culture is driven by the West (US & Europe)
      • American TV/Movies are watched EVERYWHERE
      • Many believe this destroys the regional/local cultures
      • World culture, recently, becoming more popular
  • The Arts
      • Always copying what is valued (1700’s Turkish carpets)
      • Value placed on ancient cultural treasures, efforts to protect by govts
      • UN & other groups are working to protect, preserve artifacts
      • Traveling exhibits share artifacts, keeping control local
  • Looking Ahead
      • Nationalism vs. Global Interdependence will make each culture balance local and global interested in the future
book review1
Book Review
  • Read Section 2 (p 510-515)
    • Do questions # 3-5 in review
  • Read Section 3 p. 516-521
    • Do questions on p.521 #3-7
chapter assessment
Chapter assessment

This chapter we are going to try something new. You will get into groups you select. (no more than 3 in a group). You will be assigned 3 essay questions. As a group, and using your notes and book, you will answer each of the three essay questions together. This will be done on Thursday in class.

EssaysWrite out in essay format (diagrams can be used to help, but most information needs to be within the essay
  • 1. Compare and contrast the North (rich) and the South (poor) parts of the world after World War 2.
  • 2. Many regions of the world have seen a struggle between advanced technologies/western culture and the traditional ways. Explain the conflict and give 2 specific examples of these struggles.
  • 3. International interdependence has created many opportunities and also many conflicts. What is international interdependence? Explain how it can be both a good thing and a bad thing.