Legacies of Historical Globalization in Canada Social Studies 10-1 Chapter Seven Notes Mrs. Callihoo
How did Historical Globalization Affect Canada? (page 162) • In 1497 GiovannieCaboto claimed the Island of Newfoundland for Brittan. • Settlers did not start arriving in Newfoundland and New France until the early 1600’s. • Europeans were more interested in finding a new rout to Asian than inhabiting this new land.
By the mid 1500’s it became fashionable for men to wear felt hats made from beaver fur. By the 1600’s European beavers had been hunted to near extinction. • At this time the focus of exploration in New France shifted from finding a route to Asia to finding better ways of collecting furs. • This marked the beginning of the fur trade and Historical Globalization in Canada
First peoples in the early fur trade. • The First Nations of Eastern Canada helped the French with the Fur Trade. They trapped the animals and transported the pelts. • The company quickly grew and therefore required more workers. • The settlers who arrived in New France found the environment harsh. The First Nations also helped them adjust. They taught the settlers how to avoid disease, how to get enough Vitamin C and how to hunt and travel using canoes, snowshoes and toboggans.
Clashing Social Values • Unlike Europeans, for whom social status was based on land ownerships and wealth, the First Nations peoples did not recognize any social or class distinctions. For them status was defined by ability and people shared equality. • The first nations viewed themselves as spiritual guardians and stewards. They believed that land was a gift from the Creator to be used for survival. • Before contact with the Europeans, Frist Nations people had used oral treaties to settle territorial disputes which were passed on by word of moth. The European colonial governments were accustomed to written treaties.
In the 1700’s the British began negotiating written treaties with the First Nations people. The goal of these treaties was to prevent conflict, so that the European settlers could live safety while establishing farms.
The Seven Years’ War • The Seven Years’ War lasted from 1756-1763 involving Brittan and French. The was essentially started over the competition between the two countries. Slowly the war drew in other European powers and spread to colonies in North America, West Africa, Cuba, the Philippines, and India. • Historians say it was the first global war. • This was left legacies in all the countries that were involved.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 • The new British Territories were governed by King George III who issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763. This Proclamation attempted to attract British Settlers. It offered land grants to former British soldiers. • The proclamation limited settlement in eastern North America by reserving a large part of the interior for First Nations people. This inland reserve was intended to maintain peace with them, who were being crowded away out of costal areas.
Continued.. • The proclamation made it so that only British government was allowed to buy land from the First Nations. However, it failed and settlers continued to tickle into the interior. • Despite the proclamations failures, First Nations consider it groundbreaking because it recognized Aboriginal Title. The established treaty-making process still remains in effect today.
Legacies of Early British Rule. Rule. Page 172 • The Hudson’s Bay Company (Fur Trade)
Depopulation of First Nations Peoples • When the European's first arrived, at least 500 000 Indigenous people occupied the continent. • When Europeans settled here they took the best land for themselves and pushed the First Nations into unproductive spaces. • Bands often migrated to areas occupied by other Frist Nations which often created tension and conflict among First Nations. This in turn upset the delicate balance between First Nations and the land. • European diseases often devastated First Nations. In 1870, an outbreak of smallpox killed thousands as they had no immune system to fight this plague.
Numbered Treaties • Between 1871 and 1877, seven treaties were signed. Four more were signed between 1899 and 1921. Each was given a number, these treaties marked the beginning of a “Cash for Land” approach by the government. • In return for surrendering their territory and agreeing to live on reserves (area’s “reserved” for First Nations Peoples) they were promised annual payments and other benefits such as farm animals and tools. • The First Nations and government negotiated understood the treaties differently. The First Nations viewed the money they received as a gift given in exchange for sharing their territory, not as a payment for completely surrendering their land.
The Indian Act- Page 177 • The Indian Act was passed in 1876, and was a tool the government used to encourage assimilation. • This act remains in place today however, many of its provisions have changed. • It originally meant that the lives of the First Nations people were strictly controlled by government.
Continued… • They defined who was and who was not a status Indian (someone who is registered according to the provisions of the act and therefore eligible for specific benefits). • It banned some traditional practices such as the Sun Dance. • Those who moved off reserves were allowed to vote in federal elections. • In 1927, the act made it illegal for First Nations to pursue land claims without the consent of the superintendent of Indian Affairs (an employee of the federal government)
Residential Schools • These were where Frist Nations children were gathered to live, work, and study. (another tool in the governments assimilation policy) • The schools were part of the Indian Act • They started in the 1880’s, school aged children were taken from their families sometimes by force and placed in these schools. • Every August the students were taken from their family and shipped to school, where siblings were separated by age and sex.
Legacies of Residential Schools- Page 179 • Schools were often far away from the children’s home. • Though some teachers were kind, most were poorly trained and cruel. • Discipline was harsh, children were punished for speaking their own languages, and forbidden to follow their traditions. • They were told their own culture was not worth preserving. • When they returned home they often felt like strangers because they had been cut off from their own ways of life. • They had not learned to love and nurture from their parents and they carried on with their children. • The last residential school closed in 1996