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BAHRAIN. INTRODUCTION. 1. G EOGRAPHY 2. GOVERNMENT AND POPULATION 3 . ECONOMY 4. HISTORY 5. INDEPENDENCE 6. DOMESTIC POLITICS 7. FOREIGN RELATIONS 7.1. Relations with Iran 7.2. Relations with Qatar 7.3. Relations with the U.S.A 7.4. Relations with Turkey. 1.GEOGRAPHY.

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7.1.Relations with Iran

7.2. Relations with Qatar

7.3.Relations with the U.S.A

7.4.Relations with Turkey

1 geography
  • Bahrain is an archipelago

of 33 islands located off the

eastern coast of Saudi Arabia

. The four main islands are joined

by causeways, and make up about

95% of the total land area.

2 government and population
  • Full name:Kingdom of Bahrain (Mamlakat al Bahrayn )
  • Area:717 sq km (277 sq miles)
  • Capital:Manama
  • Population:807,000 (UN, 2010)
  • Languages:Arabic is the official language; English is widely spoken and is the main commercial language
  • Legal system:based on Islamic law and English common law
  • Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited but politically oriented societies are allowed
  • Political pressure groups and leaders: Shia activists; Sunni Islamist legislators and several small leftist and other groups are active
Government:Monarchy with appointed upper and elected lower chambers of Parliament

Head of State:His Majesty Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa

Crown Prince: His Highness Shaikh Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa

Prime Minister: His Highness Shaikh Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa

Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%.

Religions: 98% Muslim (approximately Shi'a 70%, Sunni 30%), with small Christian, Jewish, Baha’i, and Hindu communities.

Monetary unit:1 Bahraini dinar = 1,000 fils

3 economy
  • Natural resources: Oil, associated and non-associated natural gas, fish, pearls
  • Major Industries: Aluminum, oil and gas, metal and ship building and repair, financial services and tourism
  • Inflation: 3.5%
  • In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP.
  • Financial and insurance services contributed 30% of GDP in 2006.
  • The continuing development of the Bahrain Financial Harbour is a key element of the government’s strategy.
4 history
  • The islands of Bahrain first stepped onto

the stage of history some 3000 years BC.

  • The civilization of Dilmun: the

centre of one of the great trading

empires of the ancient world.

  • It had been a linkage between

Mesopotamia (Southern Iraq)

and the Indus Valley

(today's India and Pakistan)

The years from 300B.C. to 300A.D:Bahrain wasstrongly influenced and often directly ruled by various Persian civilizations
  • The 4th century :Alexander the

Great arrived the island

  • The 7th century:Bahrain

accepted Islam

  • Between 1522 and 1602 :

the Portuguese occupied Bahrain

  • from 1602 to 1782 :Persian
  • dominance
In 1782 : The present ruling family,

the Khalifa, captured Bahrain.

In the 1830s the Al Khalifa signed

the first of many treaties establishing

Bahrain as a British Protectorate

Bahrain was the first Gulf country

to discover petroleum in 1932.

5 the independence
  • In 1968 the British announced their intention to withdraw military forces from the Gulf area
  • Iran’s claims over the islands in 1970
  • At first stance, projects to form the Federation of Arab Emirates
  • Bahrain declared its independence on August 15, 1971
  • Promulgation of the first constitution in 1973

- convening of an elective National Assembly

6 domestic politics
  • In 1975 the sheikh suspended the constitution and dissolved the national assembly
  • The emir continued to set state policy

Since 1994, Bahrainexperienced sometimes severe

civil disturbancesfrom a Shi'ite-led resistance

  • King HAMAD bin Isa al-Khalifa,

after coming to power in 1999, pushed

economic and political reforms

  • Under the constitution

amended 14 February 2002, the country

is no longer an emirate,

but a constitutional monarchy.

The Parliament comprises two Houses - the Shura (Consultative, Lower House) and the Nuwab (Upper Council of Representatives)

The country’s first municipal and parliamentary elections in decades were held in May and October 2002

the first time that female candidates were able to run for public office

7 bahrain s foreign relations
  • Since achieving independence in 1971, Bahrain has pursued a policy to contain perceived threats to the country's security
  • a member of the United Nations and the Arab League (since 1971)
  • The outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War in 1980 aroused security concerns
  • In 1981 it joined its five neighbors-Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, the U.A.E. and Qatar-to form the strategic Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
  • strong relations with its largest financial backers, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the U.A.E
7 1 relations with iran
7.1.Relations with Iran
  • the Iranian Revolution of 1979 confronted the government with new ideological challenges
  • the discovery in 1981 of an Iran-sponsored coup plot in Bahrain
  • Iran’s ties to the country’s Shīʿite community, its territorial claims to the island, and its displeasure with the American presence in Bahrain
  • In August 2002, Hamad made the first state visit to Iran since the Islamic revolution in 1979.
  • Bahrain and Iran urged Iraq to implement all UN resolutions then pending, so that Iraq's territorial integrity and sovereignty could be honored
7 2 relations with qatar
7.2. Relations with Qatar
  • territorial dispute between Bahrain and Qatar over Hawar and the adjacent islands
  • The islands were controlled by Bahrain since the 1930s but were claimed by Qatar.
  • Resolution in 2001 of the dispute betweenBahrain and Qatar over the potential oil- and gas-rich Hawar Islands improved their already warming relations.
7 3 relations with the u s a
7.3. Relations with the U.S.A
  • Bahrain's strategic partnership with the U.S. has intensified since 1991
  • the country was used as a base for military operations in the Gulf
  • in 1992 the signing of a defense cooperation agreement
  • support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)
7 4 relations with turkey
7.4. Relations with Turkey
  • Diplomatic relations between Turkey and Bahrain were established in 1973
  • The visit of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs H.E. Sheikh Mohammed Bin Mobarak El-Halife on 5-8 August 2003 bears importance for being the first visit from Bahrain at such a high level
  • Trade volume between Turkey and Bahrain was 78.1 million US Dollars in 2006
  • Bilateral economic relations have strengthened in the recent period thanks to the increase in the number of high level visits
  • In 2007 the trade volume between Turkey and Bahrain was 186 million USD