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7.1 DFS Overview • What is the Distributed File System? • How DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication Work • DFS Scenarios • Types of DFS Namespaces • What are Folders and Folder Targets? • Namespace Server Requirements
What is the Distributed File System? The Distributed File System incorporates technologies that provide fault-tolerant access to geographically dispersed files DFS technologies include: • DFS Namespaces - provide a virtual view of shared folders located on different servers • DFS Replication - provides high-availability and fault-tolerance to files and folders • Remote Differential Compression - provides a compression technology that is optimized for data transfers over limited-bandwidth networks
2 1 1 2 User types: \\contoso.com\marketing Client computers contact a namespace server and receive a referral 1 Client computers cache the referral and then contact the first server in the referral 2 How DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication Work User in New York Server in New York \\Contoso.com\Marketing DFS Replication \\NYC-SRV-01\ProjectDocs Folder Targets \\LON-SRV-01\ProjectDocs Namespace User in London Server in London
Namespace Folder Targets Namespace Server \\LDN-SRV-01\Tools London Namespace Root \\Contoso\Public \\NYC-SRV-01\Tools New York Folder Software Tools Folders with Targets \\NYC-SRV-02\Training New York Training Guides What are Folders and Folder Targets? Folder targets include: Folders: • Are the primary elements of a namespace • Have at least one folder target • Shared folders (\\server\share) • Folders in a shared folder (\\server\share\folder) • A path to another namespace (\\domainname\rootname)
Namespace Server Requirements A namespace server is: • A domain controller or member server • Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2008 Namespace server considerations: • Must contain an NTFS volume to host the namespace • Must be in the same domain if the namespace is domain-based • Cannot be a clustered resources if the namespace is domain-based
7.2 Configuring DFS Namespaces • Deploying Namespaces for Publishing Content • Security Requirements for Creating and Managing a Namespace • Increasing Availability of a Namespace • Options for Optimizing a Namespace
Deploying Namespaces for Publishing Content To configure a namespace for publishing content: • Create a namespace • Create a folder in the namespace • Add folder targets • Set the ordering method for targets in referrals Optional tasks: • Set target priority to override referral ordering • Enable client failback • Replicate folder targets using DFS-R You may also need to delegate the ability to create & manage namespace
Increasing Availability of a Namespace Domain-based namespace: • Specify additional namespace servers Stand-alone namespace: • Create a stand-alone namespace as a cluster resource Folders: • Specify additional folder targets • Replicate folders using DFS Replication
Options for Optimizing a Namespace Methods for optimizing a namespace include: • Rename or move a folder • Disable referrals to a folder • Referral cache duration • Namespace polling
7.3 Configuring DFS Replication • What is DFS Replication? • What are Replication Groups and Replicated Folders? • DFS Replication Requirements • Scalability Considerations for DFS Replication • Process for Deploying a Multipurpose Replication Group • Understanding the Initial Replication Process • Generating Diagnostic Reports and Propagation Tests
What is DFS Replication (DFS-R)? DFS-R – multimaster replication engine that supports replication scheduling & bandwidth throttling • Uses remote differential compression to efficiently update files over a limited-bandwidth network • Detects changes on the volume by monitoring the update sequence number (USN) journal • Uses a staging folder to stage a file before sending & receiving it • Uses a version vector exchange protocol to determine what files need to be synchronized • Uses a conflict resolution heuristic of “last writer wins” for files that are in conflict & “earliest creator wins” for name conflicts • Is self-healing & can automatically recover from failure
Projects Proposals What are Replication Groups and Replicated Folders? • Replication Group • A set of servers, known as members, that participate in replicating one or more replicated folders • Can be configured for multipurpose or data collection purposes • Replicated Folder • A folder that is kept synchronized on each member Replication Group Connection Projects\Spec.doc Member Proposals\Budget.xls Projects Replicated Folders Proposals
DFS Replication Requirements • The Active Directory schema must include the DFS replication objects • Servers must be Windows Server 2003 R2 or Windows Server 2008, & must have the DFS replication service installed • Servers in a replication group must be in the same forest • Replicated folders must be stored on NTFS volumes • On server clusters, replicated folders must be located in the node’s local storage • Antivirus software must be compatible with DFS Replication
Scalability Considerations for DFS Replication • Each server can be a member of up to 256 replication groups • Each replication group can contain up to 256 replicated folders • Each server can have up to 256 connections • The number of replication groups multiplied by the number of replicated folders multiplied by the number of simultaneously active connections must be kept to 1024 or fewer • A replication group can contain up to 256 members • A volume can contain up to 8 million replicated files, & a server can contain up to 2 TB of replicates files • The max tested file size is 64 GB
Process for Deploying a Multipurpose Replication Group • Select the type of replication group to create • Specify the name and domain • Add the replication group members • Specify a topology • Specify the replication group schedule and bandwidth • Specify the primary member • Specify the folders to replicate and the local path on member servers
Understanding the Initial Replication Process • Replication of DFS Replication settings • The primary member starts replication • Files are moved to DfsrPrivate\PreExisting • Files are compared and replicated • Primary member designation is removed
Generating Diagnostic Reports and Propagation Tests Use the Diagnostic Report Wizard to: • Create a health report • Start a propagation test • Create a propagation report