nuclear power plants n.
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Nuclear Power Plants

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 46

Nuclear Power Plants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 113 Views
  • Uploaded on

Nuclear Power Plants. Provide ~20% U.S. electricity France >70% Slow controlled release of energy Need 2.5–3.5% 235 U Problem with disposal of radioactive waste. Organic Chemistry. Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds Most of these come from living things Not necessarily the case

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Nuclear Power Plants' - dominica


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
nuclear power plants
Nuclear Power Plants
  • Provide ~20% U.S. electricity
    • France >70%
  • Slow controlled release of energy
  • Need 2.5–3.5% 235U
  • Problem with disposal of radioactive waste

Chapter 4

organic chemistry
Organic Chemistry
  • Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds
  • Most of these come from living things
    • Not necessarily the case
  • ~30 million chemical compounds known
    • 95% are compounds made of carbon

Chapter 9

carbon
Carbon
  • Able to bond strongly to other carbon atoms
    • Forms long chains
    • Very few other atoms can form short chains, let alone long chains
  • Capable of forming ring structures
  • Bonds strongly to other elements
    • In particular, H, O, and N

Chapter 9

hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Made of carbon and hydrogen
  • Alkanes
    • Contain only single bonds
    • Saturated hydrocarbons
    • Each C atom bonded to maximum number of H atoms

Chapter 9

alkanes
Alkanes
  • CH4, methane, simplest one
  • C2H6, ethane
  • All have –ane ending
    • Follow a pattern

Chapter 9

slide7
structural formulas
    • Show how many hydrogens are attached to each carbon

CH3-CH3 for ethane

  • Structural formulas show how atoms are bonded together

Chapter 9

slide9

Give the structural formula for octane.

PPRRExample9.1  Kinds of Hydrocarbon Formulas

Problems

Give the structural formula for heptane.

Chapter 9

properties of alkanes
Properties of Alkanes
  • Main property: will burn and nonpolar

Chapter 9

gasoline mineral oil lubricating oil and petroleum jelly
Gasoline, mineral oil, lubricating oil and petroleum jelly.

© 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers

Courtesy Andy Washnik

Chapter 9

unsaturated hydrocarbons
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
  • Very important in biological systems
  • Alkene: hydrocarbon that contains one or more carbon-to-carbon double bonds
  • Simplest: ethylene, C2H4
  • ethylene used for ripening fruit

Chapter 9

properties of alkenes
Properties of Alkenes
  • Similar physical properties to alkanes
  • Undergo more reactions than alkanes
    • Addition reaction: add compounds across double bond
    • Importantly, they can form polymers

Chapter 9

properties of alkenes1
Properties of Alkenes
  • Main property: will burn, nonpolar and more reactive
  • Long chained hydrocarbon will be liquid rather than solid
  • example turkey fat and vegetable oil

Chapter 9

chlorinated hydrocarbons
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
  • Add Cl to hydrocarbons
    • Increase reactivity of alkanes
  • Dissolve fats, oils, and greases
    • Useful for dry cleaning
  • Tend to accumulate in fatty tissues
    • If toxic, this will be a problem

Chapter 9

chlorofluorocarbons and fluorocarbons
Chlorofluorocarbons and Fluorocarbons
  • Tend to be either liquids or gases
  • Completely inert
    • Except in upper atmosphere
  • O2 soluble in fluorinated compounds
    • Temporary substitute for hemoglobin

Chapter 9

slide18

Discuss DDT

  • Discuss Splenda

Chapter 9

alcohols
Alcohols

Alcohols contain the hydroxyl (-OH) functional group.

Examples include:

methanol CH3OH

ethanol CH3CH2OH

1-propanol CH3CH2CH2OH

Chapter 9

methanol
Methanol

Methanol or methyl alcohol is sometimes called wood alcohol. It is an important solvent and automotive fuel additive and possible fuel replacement.

Chapter 9

ethanol
Ethanol

Ethanol or ethyl alcohol is also known as grain alcohol. It is the alcohol of alcoholic beverages. It is also an additive to automotive fuel and is being considered as a gasoline replacement.

Chapter 9

toxicity of alcohols
Toxicity of Alcohols

All alcohols are toxic. Methanol for instance is oxidized to formaldehyde by liver enzymes. It can lead to blindness and death.

Even ethanol is toxic. The effects of drinking ethanol are due to its toxicity. Drunk driving, alcoholism, and fetal alcohol syndrome are all effects due to the toxicity of ethanol.

Chapter 9

ethanol1
Ethanol

Chapter 9

multifunctional alcohols
Multifunctional Alcohols

Some alcohols contain more than one hydroxyl group.

Chapter 9

complex alcohols
Complex Alcohols
  • Several common alcohols have more than one –OH group
  • Ethylene glycol: main ingredient in antifreeze
  • Glycerol: used in lotions
    • Ingredient in some explosives

Chapter 9

carboxylic acids
Carboxylic Acids

Organic acids contain the carboxyl (COOH) functional group.

Chapter 9

esters
Esters

Esters are derived from carboxylic acids and alcohols or phenols.

Chapter 9

esters1
Esters

Esters generally have a pleasant odor.

Chapter 9

esters2
Esters

Esters are named by stating the name of the alcohol part first followed by the name of the acid part with the suffix –ate.

For example: Methyl butyrate

Chapter 9

amines and amides
Amines and Amides

Amines are derivatives of ammonia. When one or more hydrogen of ammonia is replaced by an alkyl group, an amine is the result. Like ammonia, amines tend to be basic and have similar odors.

Chapter 9

amines and amides2
Amines and Amides

Amides have the nitrogen bonded to a carbonyl carbon.

The amino acids of proteins are linked by amide linkages.

Chapter 9

slide34
end
  • end

Chapter 9

aldehydes and ketones
Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Both contain carbonyl group (C=O)
  • Aldehyde: R-CHO
  • Ketone: R-CO-R’

Chapter 9

common aldehydes
Common Aldehydes
  • Change -e ending to -al
  • Produced by oxidation of alcohols
  • Formaldehyde – used as a preservative
  • Larger ones used as fragrances
    • Benzaldehyde – flavor in maraschino cherries

Chapter 9

common ketones
Common Ketones
  • Change -e ending to -one
  • Acetone most common ketone
    • Used primarily as a solvent
  • Produced by oxidation of alcohols

Chapter 9

carboxylic acid
Carboxylic Acid
  • Contains C=O and –OH group on same carbon
  • Change -e to -oicacid
  • Acetic acid: acid in vinegar

Chapter 9

esters3
Esters
  • Derived from carboxylic acids and alcohols
  • Tend to be fragrant
    • Methyl butyrate apple
    • Ethyl butyrate pineapple
    • Ethyl formate rum
    • Methyl salicylate wintergreen

Chapter 9

figure 6 13 the carbon carbon single bond of ethane and the carbon carbon double bond of ethylene
Figure 6.13: The carbon-carbon single bond of ethane and the carbon-carbon double bond of ethylene.

© 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers

Chapter 9

figure 6 15 the conversion of unsaturated ethylene to saturated ethane
Figure 6.15: The conversion of unsaturated ethylene to saturated ethane.

© 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers

Chapter 9

figure 6 16 adding water to an alkene produces an alcohol
Figure 6.16: Adding water to an alkene produces an alcohol.

© 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers

Chapter 9

slide43
END

Chapter 9

alcohol family
Alcohol Family
  • –OH group
  • Replace -e with -ol
  • CH3OH, methanol, simplest
  • Produced industrially
    • Mainly a chemical intermediate

Chapter 9

slide45
C2H5OH, ethanol
  • Made industrially and by fermentation
    • Industrially produced alcohol has noxious substances added
  • Small, simple alcohols tend to be toxic

Chapter 9

phenol
Phenol
  • –OH group on benzene ring
    • Different chemical properties than other alcohols
    • First antiseptic
    • Also causes skin irritation

Chapter 9