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The Path to Net Zero Energy Buildings. Arkansas Chapter ASHRAE February 2008 Bill Harrison. Total Energy Consumption United States. World Marketed Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu. History. Projections.

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the path to net zero energy buildings

The Path to Net Zero Energy Buildings

Arkansas Chapter ASHRAE

February 2008

Bill Harrison

world marketed energy consumption quadrillion btu
World Marketed Energy ConsumptionQuadrillion Btu



Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual Report 2004


Global Energy Consumption




Total: 12.8 TW U.S.: 3.3 TW (99 Quads)

net zero energy buildings
Net-Zero-Energy Buildings

Buildings which, on an annual basis, use no more energy than is provided by on-site renewable energy sources.

energy terms
Energy Terms
  • Energy Use Intensity: BTU/Sq. Ft./Year
  • CBECS: Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey
  • DOE Determination: Modeled predicted performance of a building designed in compliance with ASHRAE Std. 90.1
  • Site versus Source

Snapshot of entire commercial sector as of a certain date (done every 4 years—1999, 2003, 2007)

Data masked to protect privacy—no real locations, no real areas, skewed number of floors

Lots of detail about building composition (but it is self-reported)

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey

relative eui values
Relative EUI Values

All are “site” values in BTU / Square Foot / Year

  • 91,000: 2003 CBECS data
  • 47,000 - 50,000: Probable 90.1-2004 Determination Number
  • 36,000: Target for 90.1-2010
  • 25,000: Energy Efficient Building
  • 0: Net Zero Energy Building - Requires renewable energy (PV, Wind)
implications for building designers
Implications for Building Designers
  • Absolute requirement to incorporate energy efficiency into all of our designs
  • Better use of tools to predict energy use in buildings
  • Use of life cycle costing
  • Learning to communicate the message to owners and their agents
architecture 2030 challenge
Architecture 2030 Challenge target:

in 2007 all new buildings and major renovations shall be designed to use 50% of the regional average for that building type, on fossil fuel reduction basis (2030 is on carbon basis)

Architecture 2030 Challenge

Target increases to 60% in 2010 and by 10% for each 5 years thereafter until in 2030 all new and renovated building designs will be carbon neutral (using no net fossil fuel energy to operate)

aia green building coalition
AIA Green Building Coalition
  • Adopted the Architecture 2030 Challenge
  • AIA
  • U.S. Green Building Council
  • Adopted CBECS Baseline
practical energy measures
Practical Energy Measures
  • Building orientation
  • Daylighting
  • Improved envelope thermal performance
  • Cool roof
  • External overhang or shading
  • Continuous air barrier
integrated design
Integrated Design
  • Architect, HVAC, lighting and electrical, interior design, landscape architecture
  • Establish energy budget during conceptual design phase of project
  • Monitor energy impact of building decisions
  • Future: Building Information Modeling
energy modeling
Energy Modeling
  • Manufacturers’ programs
  • Energy Plus
  • eQuest
  • DOE-2.1E
reference sources
Reference Sources
  • US Department of Energy
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory
    • Great case studies
  • EPA
case study buildings
Case Study Buildings

Oberlin College Lewis Center

Oberlin, Ohio

goal: zero net site energy use (79%)

Zion Visitor Center

Springdale, UT

goal: 70% energy cost savings (65%)

Cambria Office Building

Ebensburg, PA

goal: 66% energy cost savings (43%)

Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF)

Annapolis, MD

goal: LEED 1.0 Platinum Rating (25%)

Thermal Test Facility (TTF)

Golden, CO

goal: 70% energy savings (51%)

BigHorn Home Improvement

Silverthorne, CO

goal: 60% energy cost savings (53%)

Science House, Science Museum of Minnesota

St. Paul, Minnesota

goal: zero net site energy use (139%)

the path to a net zero building
The Path to a Net Zero Building

cash flow

Lease Costs (or Finance Costs)

utility bills


Total Annual Costs ($/year)





Source Energy Savings (%)

sustainability standards
Sustainability Standards
  • 90.1-2010 – Prescriptive and Performance
  • 189.1P – High Performance Green Buildings
  • 189.2P – High Performance Green Healthcare Facilities
  • 191P - Water Conservation Standard
aedg for k 12 school buildings
AEDG for K-12 School Buildings
  • 30% savings over 90.1-1999
  • Distributed to 14,000 school administrators
  • All AEDG available for free download

ashrae greenguide
ASHRAE GreenGuide
  • Second Edition
  • Step-by-step manual for the entire building lifecycle
  • Construction, operation, maintenance, and eventual demolition
  • Techniques applicable to related technical disciplines
  • 29 "Green Tips"
  • Case studies, checklists, and other practical information
high performing buildings
High Performing Buildings
  • Launched November 2007
  • Case Studies
  • Lessons Learned
hot and humid design guide
Hot and Humid Design Guide
  • Published January 2008
  • First Edition
  • Energy Efficiency is imperative – set a target energy budget, talk about EUI
  • Make energy modeling a standard step in design process – track EUI changes
  • Communicate with owners and agents
  • Document efficiency measures to transmit to building operators