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Spreadsheet Download. http:// www.dot.state.mn.us/stateaid/fwd.html Beltrami-FWD-ViewerTool-Ver2.xlsm OtterTail-FWD-ViewerTool-Ver2.xlsm (No spaces, underscores, or periods.) backdefl.txt TONN2010.dll. FWD Viewer Tool with TONN 2010 and Overlays. Background – Application - Case Study.

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    1. Spreadsheet Download http://www.dot.state.mn.us/stateaid/fwd.html Beltrami-FWD-ViewerTool-Ver2.xlsm OtterTail-FWD-ViewerTool-Ver2.xlsm (No spaces, underscores, or periods.) backdefl.txt TONN2010.dll

    2. FWD Viewer Tool with TONN 2010 and Overlays Background – Application - Case Study Fall 2013 – Spring 2014 Dr. W. James Wilde, P.E. Professor, Minnesota State University Director, Center for Transportation Research and Implementation Mankato, Minnesota Where the Research Hits the Road.

    3. Outline Basic Tool Operation Overlay Method Technical Background Case Studies Tips for Requesting FWD Testing Troubleshooting

    4. Statewide FWD Testing Tier 1 Testing 3,431 Road Segments 8,887 Miles 90,559 Test Locations 366,832 FWD Drops Structural Capacity < 9 Tons 9-10 Tons > 10 Tons

    5. FWD Viewer Tool Individual county tools are available on the State Aid web site.

    6. Statewide Data *Locations without complete pavement information are not included.

    7. Outline Basic Tool Operation

    8. Basic Tool Operation Initial View Initial view Version numbers Major functions – instructions, settings, traffic, overlay, print Roadway Segment Selection Data Display

    9. Basic Tool Operation Initial View

    10. Basic Tool Operation Verify Versions

    11. Basic Tool Operation Major Functions

    12. Basic Tool Operation Select Roadway Segment

    13. Basic Tool Operation Available Data

    14. Basic Tool Operation Available Data

    15. Basic Tool Operation Pre-Computed TONN 2010 Data

    16. Basic Tool Operation Revised TONN 2010 Computations

    17. Basic Tool Operation Revised TONN 2010 Computations

    18. Basic Tool Operation Sample Printed Report

    19. Basic Tool Operation User Settings

    20. Basic Tool Operation File Locations Must change Excel Macro Security settings temporarily.

    21. Basic Tool Operation Temporarily Suspend Security Settings File/Options/Trust Center/Trust Center Settings/Macro Settings/ Check “Trust access to the VBA project object model” Click OK, then OK again Change the file location Go back to Macro Settings and Uncheck “Trust access to…”

    22. Basic Tool Operation User-Defined Traffic

    23. Basic Tool Operation User-Defined Traffic If modifications are made to the traffic entries, TONN 2010 must be recomputed to ensure current information. This can take several minutes depending on the roadway length and computer speed.

    24. Outline Overlay Method

    25. Overlay Method Send Selected Segment to Overlay Design Module

    26. Overlay Method User Options

    27. Overlay Method Check Segment Consistency

    28. Overlay Method Check Segment Consistency

    29. Overlay Method Divide into Analysis Segments

    30. Overlay Method Data Evaluation • As always, consider localized full-depth repairs.

    31. Overlay Method Results 80% Reliability

    32. Overlay Method Results 95% Reliability

    33. Overlay Method What is the Proper Reliability Level? • AASHTO Levels of Reliability Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, AASHTO, 1993

    34. Overlay Method Variability and Reliability The segment on the left has higher variability than the one on the right.

    35. Overlay Method Variability and Reliability Since reliability is tied to the variability of the segment, higher variability leads to lower expected TONN rating. If we are not as sure of the predicted results we can’t make claims of higher TONN ratings.

    36. Outline Technical Background

    37. Technical Background TONN 2010 • Spring Load Capacity • Work by Dr. Lev Khazanovich • Based on Damage Models • Fatigue Cracking • Subgrade Permanent Deformation • Base Failure

    38. Technical Background TONN 2010 • MnPAVE models were selected after evaluating many others • MnPAVE is a mechanistic-empirical design procedure • Calibrated to Minnesota low volume roads • Requires fewer inputs than many other models

    39. Technical Background TONN 2010 Nf=C ∙ 0.001KF1∙ɛh-3.291∙E-0.854 • Fatigue Cracking • C = correction factor (based on material properties) • KF1 = calibration factor for R-value designs • Ɛh= maximum tensile horizontal strain at the bottom of the AC layer • E = AC modulus

    40. Technical Background TONN 2010 Nd=0.0261∙ɛc-2.35 • Subgrade Permanent Deformation • Ɛc= maximum compressive vertical strain at the top of the subgrade

    41. Technical Background TONN 2010 • Base Shear Failure Criteria • 1 = maximum allowable major principal stress • 3 = minor principal stress, or confining pressure for triaxial test • C = cohesion •  = internal friction angle, degrees • Base layer is predicted to fail when 1 > 1critical

    42. Technical Background TONN 2010 MnPAVE climatic parameters are pre-programmed for each county

    43. Technical Background TONN 2010 • Analysis Steps • Backcalculation of FWD drops • Temperature and seasonal adjustment of backcalculated moduli • Estimate structural response • Conduct damage analysis • Select critical load capacity

    44. Technical Background FWD Device

    45. Technical Background Backcalculation

    46. Technical Background Structural Response Asphalt Base Subgrade Under Wheel Between Wheels

    47. Technical Background Damage Analysis • Develop TONN ratings for • Asphalt Cracking • Subgrade Rutting • Base Shear Failure • Differential Deflections • Use minimum value for the TONN rating

    48. Technical Background Overlay Method Overlay Asphalt Base Subgrade

    49. Technical Background Overlay Method • Compute layer moduli based on: • Reliability inputs • Pavement structure • Default or User-supplied Traffic • Measured FWD data • Add asphalt overlay thickness