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  1. Anatomy & Physiology Book: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 9th Edition Chapter: 1 Introduction to A & P

  2. List of Note-Cards (Ch. 1 Introduction) • #1-1 Aids to Understanding • #1-2 Basic Info • #1-3 Ten Characteristics of life • #1-4 Five Requirements of Life • #1-5 Homeostatic Mechanism • #1-6 Organization of the Human Body • #1-7 Viscera • #1-8 Functions of Various Organ Systems • #1-9 Anatomical Position • #1-10 Relative Positions • #1-11 Body Sections

  3. #1-1 Aids to Understanding • Append- • Cardi- • Cran- • Dors- • Homeo- • -logy • Meta- • Pariet- • Pelv- • Peri- • Pleur- • Stasis- • -tomy

  4. #1-1 Aids to Understanding • Append- to hang something • Cardi- heart • Cran- helmet • Dors- back • Homeo- same • -logy …the study of • Meta- change • Pariet- wall • Pelv- basin • Peri- around • Pleur- rib • Stasis- standing still • -tomy … cutting

  5. #1-2 Basic Info • Anatomy refers to structure. • Physiology refers to function. • Analyzing a biological structure gives us clues about what it does and how it works. Conversely, knowing the function of something provides insight about its construction. (Cambell, pg. 7) • Body parts are organized in a way to complete their function. Be able to describe an example… a) birds: wings, bones, never cells, mitochondria b) humans: fingers, heart, uterus • Levels of Organization: atom, molecule, macromolecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

  6. Romans 12:4-6 says “In this way we are like the various parts of a human body. Each part gets its meaning from the body as a whole not the other way around. The body we are talking about is Christ’s body of chosen people. Each of us finds our meaning and function as a part of His body. But as a chopped off finger or cut off toe wouldn’t amount to much, would we? So since we find ourselves fashioned into all these excellently formed and marvelously functioning parts in Christ’s body, let’s just go ahead and be what we were made to be, without enviously or pridefully comparing ourselves with each other, or trying to be something we aren’t. (MSG)

  7. #1-3 Ten Characteristics of life • Movement • Responsiveness • Growth • Reproduction • Respiration • Digestion • Absorption • Circulation • Assimilation • Excretion (Hole’s Essentials of Anatomy and Phsyiology 9th Edition Table 1.1 pg. 5)

  8. #1-4 Five Requirements of Life • Water: most abundant chemical in the body • Food • Oxygen: used to release energy from food, makes up ~20% of “air” • Heat: form of energy, product of metabolic processes, heat and rate of reactions are directly proportional • Pressure: application of force, types include atmospheric pressure (exerted by gas) and hydrostastic pressure (exerted by liquid)

  9. #1-5 Homeostatic Mechanism • Homeostasis: maintenance of a stable internal environment • The body maintains homeostasis through a series of self-regulating control mechanisms (homeostasis mechanisms). 1. Receptors: provide information about conditions/stimuli within internal env’t 2. Set Points: tells what a particular value should be 3. Effectors: cause responses that alter conditions in the internal env’t • Types of Mechanisms: 1. Negative Feedback: 2. Positive Feedback:

  10. 1. Negative Feedback • Accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process • Most common form of regulation • Example: The body breaks down sugar to generate chemical energy called ATP… When the cell makes more ATP than the cell can use, the excessive ATP inhibits an enzyme at the beginning of the pathway and slows the process down.

  11. 2. Positive Feedback • Accumulation of an end product of a process speeds up the production • Least common form of regulation • Example: clotting of your blood in response to injury… Platelets from your blood will accumulate at the site of a wound. These platelets will release chemicals that attract more platelets, which initiates the process that seals the wound with a clot

  12. Example: What type of homeostastic mechanism is illustrated below? • Oxytocin is a hormone that causes uterine contractions.

  13. #1-6 Organization of the Human BodyDraw and identify each cavity. (pg.9) 2 5 1 3 4 7 6 8

  14. #1-6 Organization of the Human Body • Axial Portion (head, neck, and trunk) • Dorsal cavities • Cranial cavity • Oral Cavity • Nasal Cavity • Orbital Cavity • Middle Ear Cavity • Spinal Cavity • Ventral Cavities • Thoracic Cavity • Abdominopelvic Cavity • Abdominal Cavity • Pelvic Cavity • Appendicular Portion (upper and lower limbs)

  15. #1-7 Viscera 3 Identify as many organs as possible! Cavity? 2 1 8 4 5 6 7 10 12 9 11

  16. #1-7 Viscera • aka: organs • Thoracic Viscera Includes: • Abdominopelvic Viscera Includes: List of Major Organs To Place in the Appropriate Cavities: • Lungs • Kidneys • (Most of) s. and l. intestines • Heart • Stomach • Esophagus • Trachea • Spleen • Thymus • Liver • Gallbladder

  17. #1-8 Functions of Various Organ Systems

  18. #1-9 Anatomical Position • It is assumed that a body is in anatomical position when using anatomical terminology.This position can be described with the following characteristics: • Standing erect • Facing Forward • Upper limbs at the side • Palms Forward

  19. #1-10 Relative Positions

  20. #1-10 Relative Positions

  21. #1-11 Body Sections • Sagital Plane: plane passes through midline and divides body into left and right halves • Transverse Plane: divides body into superior and inferior sections • Coronal Plane: divides body into anterior and posterior sections

  22. Practice Identifying Body Sections Instructions: • View the following illustrations within your textbook (Hole’s Essectials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 9th Edition). • Next, identify the body section or type of plane used in each illustration. (sagital, transverse, or coronal) Questions: • Pg. 3 Figure 1.2 b • Pg.11 Figure 1.11 • Pg.28 • Pg.117 Figure 6.4 • Pg.127 Figure 7.2 • Pg.129 Figure 7.5 f • Pg.139 Figure 7.13 • Pg.139 Figure 7.14 • Pg.224 Figure 9.25 a • Pg.137 Figure 7.11 **

  23. Practice Problems: Relative Positions • The skin is ______ to the heart. • The chin is ______ to the mouth. • The naval is ______ to the spinal cord. • The nose is ______ to the eyes. • The knee is ______ to the foot. • The wrist if ______ to the elbow. • The dermis is _____ to the epidermis. • The elbow is ____ to the fingers. • The pelvic cavity is __ to the thoracic. • The ears are ____ to the eyes. Choices • Superior • Inferior • Anterior • Posterior • Medial • Lateral • Proximal • Distal • Superficial • Deep