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Representation. Karl Marx. German Philosopher, sociologist and created the Marxism theory!

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Karl marx
Karl Marx

  • German Philosopher, sociologist and created the Marxism theory!

  • He thought that society spilt into two half’s bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie controlled and owned all of the business’ and put themselves at the top of the hierarchy. Whereas the proletariat were the workers and bottom of society and bottom of the hierarchy. He expressed a revolutionary concept: the world must be interpreted, it must be transformed.

Marxism and ideology
Marxism and ideology

  • While Marxist thought may be used to empower marginalized and dispossessed people, it has also been used to prop up governments who have utilized violence to remove those seen as impeding the revolution.

  • Marxism, ideology is 'false consciousness', which results from the emulation of the dominant ideology by those whose interests it does not reflect. From this perspective the mass media disseminate the dominant ideology: the values of the class which owns and controls the media.

David gauntlett

  • Is a British sociologist and media theorist. He specializes in the study of contemporary media audiences, the everyday making and sharing of digital media, and the role of such media in self-identity and self-expression.

Stuart hall
Stuart Hall

  • He spoke about theft and he said that the majority of people who committed crime and theft were white but there was a myth that it was black people and for the idea that black people were the victim of crime and he thought that this was clearly racism and a big problem.


  • According to the pluralist model, power is exercised by the mass of the population, rather than by a small elite group. This conclusion is derived from two main arguments. First, pluralists note that if a majority of people do not like what their representatives are doing, they can vote them out of office at the next election.


  • Ideology translates to the science or study of ideas. However, ideology tends to refer to the way in which people think about the world and their ideal concept of how to live in the world. This is slightly different from philosophy in the sense that ideology encompasses the concept that one’s ideals are the best way.


  • Hegemony, a term that came from the writings of Karl Marx, was conceptualized by Antonio Gramsci, a Marxist social philosopher who lived in Mussolini's Italy. Because Gramsci was a Marxist, he subscribed to the basic Marxist premise of the historical dialectic. This means that, according to classic Marxist theories, societies must transform over time from oppressive economic systems to more and more liberating ones, until society finally reaches the Utopian state of communism.

  • Marx believed that capitalism was an oppressive economic system because of the unequal distribution of the wealth among a few powerful people, and he believed that eventually, the masses would overthrow capitalism and move to a less oppressive system.


  • Capitalism is an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, especially as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.

Louis althusser
Louis althusser

  • Louis Althusser was a French Marxist philosopher who saw Marxism as a science. His work is in the structuralist tradition. One feature of Althusserian Marxism is a rejection of Marx's Hegelian essentialism.

  • Although he refused to be labeled as a structuralist, Louis Althusser is noted for influencing structuralism by using his writing to elaborate on ideas first proposed by Karl Marx. While Marx relates all aspects of human life to the base or superstructure of economic production, Althusser envisions the base as one of three processes . Focusing on how ideology manifests itself within capitalist society, Althusser endeavoured to develop a systematic theory of how a supposedly abstract system perpetuates itself through its living inhabitants.

Laura mulvey
Laura mulvey

  • Feminist film theoryis theoretical film criticism derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. Feminists have many approaches to cinema analysis, regarding the film elements analysed and their theoritical underpinnings.

  • film reflects the langauge of partriarchy by being bound up in the same story of sexual difference that all patriarchy is founded on.  In film women is seen as Other, as an object not a subject.  In a way she represents the unconscious of the male because she is always the object he is looking at and never is able to speak for herself.


  • The Symbolic Annihilation of Women by the Mass Media, she suggests that television and other media texts, such as women’s magazines do not accurately depict women.

  • Tuchman uses the term “symbolically annihilated” to describe how women are extremely underrepresented in television in today’s society. Tuchman suggests that this lack of representation for the female race tells society that women do not have an influence, or matter much in American society.

Noam chomsky
Noam Chomsky

  • His work has influenced fields such as computer science, mathematics, and psychology.

  • Chomsky is credited as the creator or co-creator of the Chomsky hierarchy therom, the universal grammar thoery and the chomsky-schutzenberger therom.