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Anti-malarial Plants Products of Mali: . Chiaka Diakité Department of Traditional Medicine (DMT) Bamako Nairobi, 20-22 March 2006. Plan of presentation. Introduction Traditional treatment Medicinal plants used for Malaria Reseach,objectives,strategies,results

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anti malarial plants products of mali

Anti-malarial Plants Products of Mali:

Chiaka Diakité

Department of Traditional Medicine (DMT)


Nairobi, 20-22 March 2006

plan of presentation
Plan of presentation
  • Introduction
  • Traditional treatment
  • Medicinal plants used for Malaria
  • Reseach,objectives,strategies,results
  • Economic importance of medicinal plants
  • Conclusion
  • In Africa 80% of the population uses Traditional Medicine for sociocultural & economic reasons
  • In Mali, poverty exacerbates the difficulties of access to primary health care
  • The majority of the population resorts to Traditional Medicine for treatment of malaria

Malaria is a public health problem

  • 300 – 500 million clinical cases annually worldwide
  • 1.1-2.7 million deaths each year
  • 28% absenteeism from school
  • 3.5 days of temporary disability per person per year
  • > 2 million USD in direct & indirect costs for malaria in Africa

In Mali:

  • 1993 – National program to fight against malaria
  • 42% of deaths amongst infants & juveniles
  • Leading cause of mortality (13%)
  • Leading cause of morbidity (15.6%)
  • For the treatment of malaria poeple self medicate

- With modern medicines

- With traditonal medicines

- A combination of both medicines

  • Treatment at the health center
  • Treatment at the traditional healer clinic
traditional treatment of malaria
Traditional Treatment of Malaria

In Traditional Medicine the treatment of malaria is based on the use of prescriptions of plant-based medicines with some animal products

Preparation is by steeping or infusing decoctions of plants & parts of plants in water

The prescription is administered as a drink, as a bath, as a steam bath or as a fumigation

some medicinal plants used for malaria in mali
Some medicinal plants used for malaria in Mali
  • Scientific Names Bamana Names
  • Glinus oppositifolius L. Balassa
  • Vernonia colorata Will. Kô safunè
  • Cassia sieberiana D. C. Sindjan
  • Cochlospermum tinctorium A. N´tiribara
  • Anogeissus leiocarpus D. C.N´galama
  • Combretum glutinosum PerrexTchangara blé
  • Guiera senegalensis J. F.N´kundjè
some medicinal plants used for malaria in mali1
Some medicinal plants used for malaria in Mali

Scientific Names Bamana Names

  • Alchornea cordifolia SchumachDunféké
  • Chrosophora senegalensis Lam.Dabada
  • Psorospermum guineense Hochr.Karidjakouma
  • Khaya senegalensis Desr.Djala
  • Trichilia roka Forst.Soulafinzan
  • Acacia senegal L. WilldDonkari
  • Entada africana Guill. Perr.Samanèrè
  • Parkia biglobosa Jacq.Nèrè
some medicinal plants used for malaria in mali2
Some medicinal plants used for malaria in Mali
  • Scientific Names Bamana Names
  • Ficus thonnigii Blume Doubalé
  • Oxytenanthera abyssinica Munro Bô
  • Gardenia ternifolia Schum.Bouré tchè
  • Mitragyna inermis Willd.Jun
  • Nauclea latifolia Sm.Baro
  • Fagara zanthoxyloïdes Lam.Wô
  • Lippia chevalieri MoldenkeN´ganiba
research by dmt
Research by DMT
  • Research into anti-malarial activities of plants
  • The fight against carriers (vectors)
  • The implications for workers in Traditional Medicine in the fight against malaria
research objectives
Research Objectives
  • To place at the disposal of the population effective anti-malarial medicines at reduced cost which are based on local products
  • To arrange effective anti-larval medicines that cause little harm to the environment
research strategies
Research Strategies
  • Collaboration with traditional therapists
  • Collection of ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants
  • Compilation of medicinal plant bibliographies
  • Laboratory testing & clinical studies
research results
Research Results
  • ´´ Malarial ´´ is a mixture of 3 plants wich is used against Malaria of Plasmodium falciparum

- Cassia occidentalis

- Lippia chevalieri

- Spilanthes oleracea

  • ´´Argemone.Mexicana ´´is a single plant used against Malaria
production of malarial
Production of Malarial
  • Table of malarial production at the DMT
  • Period Quantity
  • 2000 -
  • 2001 -
  • 2002 7.913
  • 2003 6.645
  • 2004 4.386
  • 2005 4.715
traditional healer and malaria treatment bandiagara s experience
Traditional healer and malaria treatment Bandiagara’s Experience
  • 45 healers was formed to the signs and symptoms of uncomplicated and complicated Malaria
  • In ten months 3797 patients were diagnosed
  • 114 were refered to the health center
  • 34 died
urban use of medicinal plants
Urban Use of Medicinal Plants
  • Today, despite urbanisation, the population continues to treat itself with medicinal plants
  • However personal use is based upon market supply & demand:
    • Little or no respect for the plants
    • Excessive exploitation
    • Over harvesting
    • Wastage & conservation problems
the market for medicinal plants
The Market for Medicinal Plants
  • Across Malian towns one encounters many sales points for medicinal plants:
    • In the markets
    • Along the main roads
    • Travelling salespersons
    • More & more the sale of medicinal plants is improving & better organised
the market for medicinal plants1
The Market for Medicinal Plants
  • Today medicinal plants are sold by:

1) Herbalists

  • Improved traditional herbalists in the markets of Medine & Hamdallaye
  • Authorised herbalists

2) Pharmacies

plant based medicines
Plant-based Medicines
  • Medicinal plants are used by:
  • The population for self-medication
  • Traditional health practitioners in the treatment of their patients
  • DMT for the production of enhanced Traditional Medicines
  • Exporters for supply of international markets of herbal medicines
economic importance of medicinal plants
Economic Importance of Medicinal Plants
  • A study conducted in Burkina Faso estimated the annual consumption per person per annum is about 500g at an approximate cost of 2,200F CFA (Banque mondiale – PROMETRA – Burkina Faso, 2003)
  • This correlates with a city like Bamako, with an annual consumption of about 600 tonnes of medicinal plants at a value of 2,640, 000,000F CFA
  • The world market for traditional plant-based medicines is estimated at 60 million USD
  • (Strategie de l’OMS pour La Medicine Traditionelle 2002-2005)
industrial production of plant based medicines
Industrial Production of Plant-based Medicines
  • In Mali, the population makes up the principal source of medicinal plants
  • Today, large scale production of plant-based medicines is a compelling obligation to enable fulfilment of the health care needs of the population of Mali & of elsewhere
  • This production ultimately has the ability to lead to significant problems in relation to natural space & the depletion of plant-based medicines

Regeneration of medicinal plants

Culture of Spilanthes oleracea

plant based medicines biodiversity
Plant-based Medicines & Biodiversity
  • The results of a study conducted by DMT on ‘Medicinal plants sold in the Bamako markets – conservation & biodiversity’ showed that the scarcity of medicinal plants in nature & the disappearance of certain of these, are among the main causes of the lack of stock of some medicinal plants at Bamako herbalists
  • 30% of rare plants are those frequently used against pathologies associated with ‘Sumaya’ & malaria
  • For the production & commercialisation of plant-based medicines in Mali it is necessary for:
  • Participative action involving traditional health practitioners, herbalists, researchers, non-government organisations, the private sector & decision-makers
  • Appropriate organisation & regulation
  • The consideration of self & other interests
  • The capture of ideas & experiences of traditional medicine practitioners
  • The strengthening of experiences such as ‘The International Week of Traditional African Medicine’ (SIMTA) organised by the Malian Federation of traditional therapists & herbalists (FEMBATH) to promote expansion, production & marketing of plant-based medicines in Mali and in Africa