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Towards inclusion in Norway. Some historical lines The legislation system today . Special (Needs) Education. Special education is the concrete education that students receive in schools and kindergartens. SE will include: different teaching strategies methodology

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towards inclusion in norway

Towards inclusion in Norway

Some historical lines

The legislation system today

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

special needs education
Special (Needs) Education

Special education is the concrete education that students receive in schools and kindergartens.

SE will include:

  • different teaching strategies
  • methodology
  • how the lessons are organized
  • how you structure the room
  • etc.

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

special needs education3
Special Needs Education

Special needs education is a superior concept. SNE will include knowledge about:

  • special education
  • about the research field
  • the understanding of how individual and environmental processes influence on learning of cognitive and social skills, the mental processes etc for persons with disabilities.
  • understanding of the characteristics of different forms of disabilities
  • how the education system is functioning to support persons with disabilities and their families.

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the historical lines
The historical lines

SNE in Norway is a history of development from children segregated in institutions and special schools, through special units or classes in ordinary schools to inclusion in ordinary settings in ordinary schools and kindergartens.

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the phase of foundation 50 s
The phase of foundation ( - 50’s)
  • The first special school for deaf children (1825) + one in 1848
  • 1861 - first school for blind children
  • Reflects the development in Europe
  • 1841 - school for children at social risk (criminals)
  • 1858 – class for children with psycho-social problems
  • 1874 – school for children with developmental disabilities

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

some historical lines
Some historical lines
  • The phase of foundation ( - 50’s)
  • The phase of consciousness (the 50’s)
  • The phase of explanation and clarification (the 60’s)
  • The phase of legislation (the 70’s)
  • The phase of realisation (the 80’s)
  • The phase of reforms (the 90’s -)

(Dalen 1994)

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the phase of foundation 50 s7
The phase of foundation ( - 50’s)
  • 1881 law for “abnormal children”, defined as deaf children, children with visual impairment or mental retardation
  • 1896 a low for children named as “neglected children”
  • 1889 - law to secure every child the right to education
  • 1915 – Separate law for special schools

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the phase of consciousness the 50 s
The phase of consciousness (the 50’s)
  • New law for Special Schools – 1951
  • 1955 – the education act includes “auxiliary-classes” within the ordinary schools
  • 1959 - service of school psychologists were incorporated in the school laws from 1955

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the phase of explanation and clarification the 60 s
The phase of explanation and clarification (the 60’s)
  • Integration thinking with an individualized and formalized perspective
  • A new education act of 1969 paid attention to how to help the students through 3 perspectives (§8):
      • Special education should be given to student because the needed help, not because the couldn’t follow the tuition
      • Some principles regarding special education guidelines from the law of special schools was taken into the ordinary education act
      • The local administrations (on municipality level) was obliged to establish local pedagogical and psychological services

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the phase of legislation the 70 s
The phase of legislation (the 70’s)
  • The development up to the 70th is a development marked by a movement away from strongly segregated schools and institutions to a more open school system for students with disabilities.
  • 1971 – One law for education
  • The curriculum was marked by a change in concepts:

Equality not equal

Cooperation and participation

Not borderlines but coordination

Open pedagogic

All education of high quality is Special education

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the phase of realisation the 80 s
The phase of realisation (the 80’s)
  • The role of special schools were discussed due to a “White paper” from the ministry of education (nr. 501980/81):
      • Education in the local municipality
      • Have the integration process gone to far and to fast?
  • Another White Paper (nr.61, 1984/85) about e special schools and the SNE. Focus was paid to:
      • How to reach high quality in SNE
      • Expert assessment of students with special needs
      • Integration

Reorganisation of some of the special schools into resource centres was introduced or the first time

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the phase of reforms the 90 s
The phase of reforms (the 90’s -)
  • The reformation of The Healthcare System for Persons with Developmental Disabilities

White paper nr. 67 (1986/87)

Was not started before 91

Important points:

No large institutions

Be a part of the municipality

The right to an Individual Habilitation plan

The right to work

The right to maximum 5 years of tertiary education

The right to housing outside institutions (at least the former large on)

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the phase of reforms the 90 s13
The phase of reforms (the 90’s -)
  • White paper nr. 54 (1989/90) nr. 35 (1990/91) and also nr. 61 (from 1984/85) about special schools and/or resource centres:
    • Reorganisation of the special schools into 13 competence centres with the country as area of responsibility:
      • 2 for visual impairment
      • 6 for hearing impairment
      • 1 for language And speech difficulties
      • 3 for psycho-social problems
      • 1 for reading and writing difficulties
    • In addition 7 regional centres for complex learning difficulties
    • A special program for the northern Norway

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the phase of reforms the 90 s14
The phase of reforms (the 90’s -)

Today – Statped (the system of resource centres):

  • 3 for visual impairment
  • 7 for hearing impairment
  • 4 for deafblindness (on regional level) and 3 with special tasks (on national level)
  • 5 for language- speech , reading and writing difficulties
  • 8 for complex learning difficulties and social and emotional problems
  • 2 only for social and emotional problems
  • 1 for profound and multiple learning disabilities
  • 1 for minority language and learning difficulties
  • 1 for early childhood intervention (0-5 years)
  • 1 for information technology for people with disabilities
  • 1 for acquired brain damage
  • 1 for disabled Sami persons
  • 1 for ADHD, Tourette syndrome and Narcolepsy
  • 6 schools attached to social and medical institutions

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

the phase of reforms the 90 s15
The phase of reforms (the 90’s -)

Today:

  • Alternative schools
  • Individual Education Plans
  • The pedagogical and psychological service system (1. line) in cooperation with regional and national services
  • Adapted education

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adapted education

Adapted Education

For every child

Special needs

Education

For students that needs more support than the ordinary system can offer

Adapted education

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legislation
Legislation
  • All children and young persons have the right to 13 years of schooling
  • All children must have 10 years of compulsory school from the age of six years
  • Teaching shall be adapted to the abilities and aptitudes of individual pupils, apprentices and trainees
  • Pupils who do not benefit satisfactorily from regular teaching have the right to special education

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

legislation19
Legislation
  • The Act concerns primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education in public schools
  • The Private Education Act has similar regulations

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legislation20
Legislation

Responsibility of the authorities:

  • The municipality shall provide primary and lower secondary education and special educational assistance
  • The county authority shall provide upper secondary education

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legislation21
Legislation

”Working Environment Act” for pupils

New chapter in the Education Act from 2002

  • The schools are to be planned, build, organised and run in consideration to the safety, health, well-being and education of the pupils
  • Special consideration shall be shown for pupils with disabilities already in the school

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legislation primary and lower secondary school
Legislation - primary and lower secondary school
  • Obligation and right for every child

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legislation primary and lower secondary school23
Legislation - primary and lower secondary school

Sign language tuition:

  • Pupils who have sign language as their first language
  • Primary and lower secondary school
  • A right to tuition both in the use of sign language and through the medium of sign language
  • Can be provided at a different location than the pupil’s local school
  • Sign language tuition is not special education

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legislation primary and lower secondary school24
Legislation - primary and lower secondary school

Braille instruction:

  • Partially sighted and blind pupils
  • Primary and lower secondary school
  • A right to necessary instruction in the use of Braille and necessary technical aid
  • + orientation and mobility instruction
  • According to an expert assessment
  • Braille instruction is not special education

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legislation primary and lower secondary school25
Legislation - primary and lower secondary school

Assessment:

  • Primary school: Assessment without grades
  • Lower secondary: Subject grades and grades for behaviour

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legislation upper secondary education
Legislation - upper secondary education
  • Pupils who have completed primary and lower secondary school
  • Right to three years’ full-time upper secondary education
  • Pupils who have the right to special education, have the right to a maximum of two years’ additional upper secondary education

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legislation upper secondary education27
Legislation - upper secondary education

Tuition arrangements:

Upper secondary education shall lead to qualification for:

  • higher education
  • vocational qualifications
  • lower level of competence

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legislation upper secondary education28
Legislation - upper secondary education

Training in enterprises:

  • Apprentice: a person entered into an apprenticeship contract to take a trade or journeyman’s examination
  • Trainee: a person entered into a traineeship contract to take a less extensive examination

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legislation upper secondary education29
Legislation - upper secondary education

Education and training organized especially for adults:

  • Persons above compulsory school age who require primary and lower secondary education have a right to such education
  • The education shall be individually adapted
  • Also the right to special educationat the primary and lower secondary level
  • Adults with special need for basic skill training have the right to such training

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legislation upper secondary education30
Legislation - upper secondary education

Adults – upper secondary:

  • Persons having completed primary and lower secondary level or the equivalent
  • Adapted to individual needs
  • No right to special education
  • No charge, but the authorities may require payment for teaching materials and equipment

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right to special education sec 5 1
Right to special education sec. 5-1
  • Pupils who either do not or are unable to benefit satisfactorily from ordinary tuition have the right to special education

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legislation special needs education
Legislation – Special (needs) education

Expert assessment:

To decide whether the pupil needs special education and what kind of tuition should be provided, the expert assessment shall consider and determine:

  • The pupil’s benefit from ordinary tuition
  • Learning difficulties and other special condition
  • Realistic educational objectives
  • Whether it is possible to provide help within ordinary educational provisions
  • What kind of tuition it is appropriate to provide

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no

legislation special needs education33
Legislation – Special (needs) education

Administrative procedures:

  • The municipality or county authority takes the decision concerning special education
  • If the decision of the authority differs from the expert assessment, it shall be explained how the tuition fulfils the pupil’s rights pursuant to the law

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legislation special needs education34
Legislation – Special (needs) education

Individual syllabuses:

  • Pupils receiving special education shall have an individual syllabus
  • The syllabus shall specify
    • educational objectives
    • content of the education
    • how tuition is to be carried out

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legislation special needs education35
Legislation – Special (needs) education

Educational and psychological counselling service:

  • Each municipality and county shall provide assistance to schools in
  • work on organizational development
  • development of expertise to improve the adoption of tuition for pupils with special needs

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legislation day care for school children
Legislation - Day-care for school children
  • The municipality shall provide day-care facilities for school children both before and after school hours for class levels 1-4
  • Day-care facilities shall be provided for pupils with special needs for class level 1-7
  • The facilities are mainly financed by means of parents’ fee

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legislation children under compulsory school age
Legislation - Children under compulsory school age
  • Children under compulsory school age with specific needs for special educational assistance , have the right to such assistance
  • This shall include parental guidance
  • If considered needed: kindergarten or pre-school can be defined as such “assistance” and will then be free of cost

steinar.theie@isp.uio.no