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Changes on the Western Frontier

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  1. Changes on the Western Frontier Chapter 5

  2. Section 1: Cultures Clash on the Prairie • The Great Plains- A grassland region that covers the central portion of the US. • The horse and buffalo were crucial to the Native Americans which usually lived with extended families. • As the eastern US became populated it pushed white settlers to the west with incentives

  3. Natives and whites clashed over land in the west • Sand Creek Massacre- in Colorado General Curtis killed about 150 peaceful Indians

  4. Sand Creek Massacre Date: November 29, 1864 Location: Colorado Territory Present-day: Kiowa County, Colorado Result: United States Army Massacres Native Americans United States vs. Cheyenne and Arapaho Commanders and leaders John M. Chivingtonvs. Black Kettle Strength U.S.: 700 vs. Indians 60–200 Casualties and losses 24 killed (United States) 52 wounded(United States) 70–163 killed(Indians)

  5. The Treaty of Fort Laramie- signed treaty that forced the Sioux onto a reservation in which Sitting Bull never signed. • Gold Rush in Dakotas and George Custer reported the Black Hills full of Gold.

  6. Custer’s last stand- led by Crazy Horseand Sitting Bull crushed Custer and troops • Americans practice assimilation as a policy: Natives lose their beliefs and adopt white culture

  7. Dawes Act: Americanize natives by forcing them to live on 80 acres or 160 per family • Battle of Wounded Knee: Americans killed natives that they felt were going to attack them

  8. Cattle Becomes big business • Longhorns: cattle that were accustomed to the region of grasslands that they were brought to. • Demand for Beef grows in the Northeast where the population is growing • Cattle were driven up many trails to the railroads including the Chisholm trail

  9. The roundup= cattle driven to the trains or selling places • The LONG DRIVE: The cattle were rounded up and pushed northward to the selling areas • The End of the OPEN RANGE: the invention of barb-wire contained cattle to certain grazing areas

  10. Section 2 Settling on the GREAT PLAINS • Settlers move westward to FARM • Railroads open the west to settlement • Homestead Act: 160 acres free to anyone who settled plots of land • Exodusters: African Americans who move from the south to the west seeking a new opportunity

  11. Settlers Meet the Challenges of the Plains • Men and women were equals, they had similar work just to survive • People lived in soddy homes made of mud and grass • New inventions help farming: John Deere with the plow, Cyrus McCormick with the reaping machine

  12. Morill Act: set aside money for agricultural colleges for research and technology • Bonanza farms: Massive farms that were owned and run like businesses

  13. Section 3: Populist Movement • Farmers united to address the common problems • Problem: banks were foreclosing on an increasing number of properties • Greenbacks: paper money that was worth less then what it was printed on or hard currency

  14. Railroads: Charging high rates for short and long distances • Oliver Hudson Kelly: formed the Grange as a forum for educating farmers • The farmers alliances: formed to get education, loans, and machine equipment at better rates

  15. The rise and fall of Populism

  16. Populist Platform • Graduated income • Federal loan programs • Election of senators by popular vote • Secret ballot system • One term for president and vice president • Eight hour work day • Immigration restrictions

  17. Panic of 1893: banks overextended themselves and railroads were going bankrupt • Political election platforms • Bimetallism: gold or silver to back currency • Gold standard: back currency with gold (gold bugs)

  18. William McKinley runs on Gold standard • William Jennings Bryan runs on Bimetallism (“Cross of Gold Speech”) • The two main political parties adopt populism ideas and party disappears.