Italian Language and Culture Past and Present
Architecture • Roman architectural idioms of arches, columns and domes - foundations of later Italian architecture • The Romanesque style (9th to 11th century) • The Renaissance style (the late 14th to the 16th c) • The baroque style and Palladianism (16th - 17th c) • Neoclassical style (18th -19th c)
Architecture • Romanesque because plenty of Roman architectural elements were used - Roman arches, stained glass and carved columns. • Bitono, Bari, Puglia
Architecture • The Arch of Constantine with Roman arches and columns
Architecture • The Renaissance • The revival of the ‘golden age’ - ancient Rome • Fillipo Brunelleschi built the largest dome for the Florence cathedral since Roman times.
Architecture • Basillica di Sant’Andrea at Mantua designed by Leon Battista Alberti
Architecture • Basilica di San Pietro at Rome designed by Michelangelo and Bramante
Architecture • Paradianism Buildings by Andrea Palladio • La Rotonda in Vicenza (1570)
Square building which looks the same from every side. At the centre there is a dome. On every side there is a portico like a Roman temple.
Architecture • 15 July, ErezGolani Solomon • The Ideal Villa: Legacy of Andrea Palladio
Literature • Italian literature; literature written in the Italian language since the 14 th century. • Written in Latin before • Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) • The Divine Comedy (1304-7)
Literature • Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vitami ritrovai per una selva oscura,ché la diritta via era smarrita • In the middle of the journey of our lifeI found myself in a dark wood,for the straight way was lost.
Literature • Francesco Petrarch • Completed ‘sonnet’ form – 14 lines with distinctive rhyming patterns • Love sonnets • Influenced on all European poets
Literature Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate:Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines,By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimm'd;But thy eternal summer shall not fadeNor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st;Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st; So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
Literature 秋の夜は、はるかの彼方に、小石ばかりの、河原があつて、それに陽は、さらさらとさらさらと射してゐるのでありました。陽といつても、まるで硅石か何かのやうで、非常な個体の粉末のやうで、さればこそ、さらさらとかすかな音を立ててもゐるのでした。さて小石の上に、今しも一つの蝶がとまり、淡い、それでゐてくつきりとした影を落としてゐるのでした。やがてその蝶がみえなくなると、いつのまにか、今迄流れてもゐなかつた川床に、水はさらさらと、さらさらと流れてゐるのでありました……Chuya Nakahara
Literature • Giovanni Boccacio • Decameron (1348-53) a prose collection of 100 stories told by 10 narrators
Drama • Comedia del arte – a form of theatre characterized by masked ‘types’ begun in the 16 th century • Emergence of actress, improvised performance based on sketches or scnearios.
Drama • 18 June Takeo Fujikura • Italian Mime and Clown: Comedia del Arte
Literauture • Gabrielle D’Annunzio • Man of action, nationalist, literary virtuoso, aesthete, and exhibitionist • Life and art was a blend of Jacob Burckhardt’s ‘complete man’ and Nietzsche’s ‘superman’
Literature • Yukio Mishima enormously influenced by D’Annunzio not only in literature but also in life • Nationalist, aesthete, exhibitionist, and literary virtuoso.
Literature • Literary connection between Italy and Japan • Love of translated literature in Italy • Over the half of the fictions published are translations • 16 April Alessandro Gerevini, The Reception of Japanese Fictions in Italy
Literature • Italo Calvino (1923 Cuba – 1985 Siena) Journalist, short-story writer and novelist • Imaginative and whimsical fables made him one of the most important 20 th century writer. • 3June, Italian Fairy Tales and Italo Calvino
Art • Giotto – the first artist who painted people, nature and action realistically. • In the frescos in churches of Assisi, Florence, Padua and Rome, he created life like figures showing real emotions
Art • The Renaissance (from the late 1400s to the early 1500s) dominated by Michelangelo, Raphael and Leonardo. • Michelangelo; sculptor, painter, and poet • The greatest sculptor in history • Master of portraying the human figure
Raphael • Raphael’s paintings are softer, gentler, more poetic, and harmonious. • Impeccable composition and perfect perspective • Delicate ‘Madonna’ paintings with young Jesus and his cousin John the Baptist
Leonardo • Leonardo, painter and natural scientist • He embodied the Renaissance spirit of learning and intellectual curiosity