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multidrug resistant organisms mdros
Multidrug-Resistant Organisms (MDROs)
  • MDROs are defined as microorganisms – predominantly bacteria – that are resistant to one or more classes of antimicrobial agents. Although the names of certain MDROs suggest resistance to only one agent (e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], vancomycin resistant enterococcus [VRE]), Extended spectrum Betalactamse, carbapenemases resistant bacteria, these pathogens are usually resistant to all but a few available antimicrobial agents.

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important mrdo s in hospital practice
Important MRDO,s in hospital practice
  • Streptococcus pneumonia (MDRSP) which is resistant to penicillin and other broad-spectrum agents such as macrolides and fluoroquinolones, multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR- GNB), especially those producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs); and strains of S. aureus that are intermediate or resistant to vancomycin (i.e., VISA and VRSA)

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why multidrug resistant bacteria are important
Why multidrug resistant bacteria are important

MDROs that are considered to be epidemiologically important and deserve special attention in healthcare facilities

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transmission of mdro s
Transmission of mdro’s
  • MDROs are transmitted by the same routes as antimicrobial susceptible infectious agents. Patient-to-patient transmission in healthcare settings, usually via hands of HCWs, has been a major factor accounting for the increase in MDRO incidence and prevalence, especially for MRSA and VRE in acute care facilities

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patient isolation precautions for hospitals
Patient Isolation Precautions for Hospitals-
  • Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO’s)may require more stringent protection, such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).ESBL ( Extended spectrum Beta lactamases, Multidrug drug resistant bacteria and Pan resistant bacterial pathogens

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patient isolation precautions for hospitals7
Standard Precautions (Basic level)

Are used for care of ALL patients in a hospital all of the time regardless of diagnosis or infection status

Combine the major features of universal, and body substance precautions, terms formerly used

Applied to blood, body fluids, excretions and secretions regardless of whether they contain visible blood, mucous membranes and non-intact skin

All other transmission-based precautions include (are in addition to) Standard Precautions

Level of use depends on anticipated contact with patient

Patient Isolation Precautions for Hospitals-

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Isolation Precautions

Hand hygiene









Linen & laundry

Waste Management

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patient isolation precautions for hospitals9
Other Transmission-Based Precautions Commonly Used in Hospitals Consist of:

Direct and Indirect Contact Precautions

Airborne Precautions

Droplet Precautions

These may be used in combinations depending on whether the microorganisms and infection in question have multiple routes of transmission with barrier nursing.

Special adaptations may be needed for multidrug resistant organisms and Category A agents of bioterrorism.

Patient Isolation Precautions for Hospitals-

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nursing education is most important tool in controlling infection
Nursing education is most important tool in controlling infection
  • Unit staff should be educated and updated frequently as to appropriate infection control for patients on their unit.
  • If possible, dedicate same patient care staff to care of infected patient(s) during their stay.

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general measures
General Measures
  • The general hospital environment and "permanent" equipment need to be protected
  • Appropriate sharp/needle precautions should be followed as should proper disposal of clinical waste and laundry

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patient isolation precautions standard precautions
Hand hygiene after patient contact

Wear clean, non-sterile protective gloves when touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions and contaminated items

Wear mask, eye protection or facial shield and gown during procedures likely to generate splashes or spray of blood, body fluids, secretions or excretions. Use depends on anticipated exposure and safe injection practices as well

Patient Isolation PrecautionsStandard Precautions

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contact precautions consists of standard precautions
Intended to prevent spread of microorganisms from an infected patient through direct means (touching the patient) and indirect means (touching surfaces or objects that have been in contact with the patient). These objects include chairs, bedrails, telephones, IV pumps, light switches and so on.

Placing the patient in a private room is preferred or when not available, it is recommended that a set of principles be followed such as cohorting with someone with the same infection.

Contact PrecautionsConsists of standard precautions

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extended standard precautions
Extended standard precautions
  • Three new elements have been added to standard precautions. These are:
    • Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette
    • Safe injection practices
    • Use of masks for insertion of catheters or injection into spinal or epidural areas

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contact precautions
Contact Precautions
  • Leak resistant bag for linens should be at bedside.
  • Dedicated thermometer, B/P apparatus and stethoscopes are preferred unless unavoidable and then must be cleaned and completely disinfected before using with other patient.
  • Indirect contact transmission can occur when a susceptible patient is in contact with an intermediate inanimate object in the patient’s environment.

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handwashing and hand hygiene
Handwashing and Hand Hygiene

One of the most important ways to protect against transmission of microbes and disease is hand hygiene

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Perform hand hygiene:

Before and after patient contact

After removing gloves or any other PPE item

After touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, and contaminated items, whether or not gloves are worn

After contact with patient surroundings

Routine hand hygiene by alcohol hand rub (preferably) or by washing hands with soap and water

Perform hand hygiene after touching surgical mask/ N 95 respirator or before touching the face

Hand hygiene

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dealing with used gloves
When expose to blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, mucous membranes and non-intact skin, and contaminated items

Perform hand hygiene immediately after glove removal

dealing with used Gloves
  • Change gloves when heavily contaminated

4. Disposable glove should not be reused

epa registered disinfectants or detergents disinfectants
EPA-registered disinfectants or detergents/disinfectants
  • EPA-registered disinfectants or detergents/disinfectants that best meet the overall needs of the healthcare facility for routine cleaning and disinfection should be selected . In general, use of the existing facility detergent/disinfectant according to the manufacturer’s recommendations for amount, dilution, and contact time is sufficient to remove pathogens from surfaces of rooms where colonized or infected individuals were housed. This includes those pathogens that are resistant to multiple classes of antimicrobial agents (e.g., C. difficile,

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common cleaners from epa list
Common Cleaners from EPA list:
  • 1. Lysol Brand Deodorizing Disinfectant Cleaner
  • 2. Lysol Brand Pre-Moistened Touch-Ups Disinfecting Cleaning Wipes
  • 3. Lysol Brand Disinfectant Direct Multi-Purpose Cleaner
  • 4. Mr. Clean Multi-Surfaces Antibacterial
  • 5. Ultra Clorox Brand Regular Bleach
  • 6. Clorox Disinfecting Spray III
  • 7. Hydrogen Peroxide
  • 8. Pine Oil
  • 9. Bio Clean
  • 10.Ready-To-Use Bathroom Cleaner and Disinfectant

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handwashing and hand hygiene21
Should be done:

Before gloving,

After removing gloves

After touching blood, body fluids, tissues, secretions, excretions or any contaminated items. If not visibly soiled can use alcohol- based but if visibly soiled or contaminated with proteinacious material use soap and wash hands.

Between patients

After procedures on some patients to prevent cross-contamination of different body sites

After contact with patients intact skin or inanimate objects near the patient

Handwashing and Hand Hygiene-

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

hand washing and hand hygiene
Wash with soap and water at least 15 seconds when hands are visibly soiled and follow institutional procedures

Use friction

Can use alcohol-based rubs to decontaminate hand, if soiled

Fingernails should be short, clean and free from polish

Artificial nails should be avoided

Hand washing and Hand Hygiene-

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

hand washing and hand hygiene23
Rings should not be worn

Watches and bracelets should be removed

For alcohol-based rubs, apply to palm of one hand and rub hand together covering all surfaces of hand and fingers until hands are dry

Paper towels should be used to dry hands. Do not touch faucet handles with hands after washing

Hand washing and Hand Hygiene-

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

infected patient transport within institution
If patient has airborne or droplet transmitted infection should only leave room, if essential

Patient should wear mask during transport

Transport personnel should wear appropriate PPE

Transport route should avoid populated areas

Receiving personnel should be aware of what PPE and infection control procedures are needed and when patient is coming

Protect stretchers or wheelchairs appropriately

Appropriate hand hygiene should be used

Infected Patient Transport Within Institution

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transport of suspected or confirmed patient
Transport of Suspected or confirmed patient
  • Limit patient transport unless clinically indicated
  • Encourage patients to wear surgical mask if no contraindication
  • Inform the receiving service/department of concern beforehand
  • Clean / disinfect transport vehicles after use
infected patient transport within institution26
Infected Patient Transport Within Institution-
  • Disinfect all transport equipment and linens
  • Patient should be in clean gown
  • Patient should wear or use appropriate barriers such as impermeable dressings for wounds
  • Let patients know how they can assist

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decontamination patient care items
Dedicated non-critical patient care items for suspected and confirmed cases

Clean and disinfect reusable equipment before used on other patients.

Use 1,000 ppm of hypochlorite solution (i.e. add 1 part of 5.25% hypochlorite in 49 parts of water) to disinfect non-critical items

Use 70% alcohol on metallic surfaces

Reusable respiratory equipment should undergo high level disinfection before reused on other patients

Decontamination - Patient Care Items
decontamination environmental control
Decontamination - Environmental Control

Disinfect isolation and procedure rooms after use by a high risk patient

  • Clean and disinfect the environment regularly and additional session for frequently touched surfaces
  • Contaminated area should be disinfected by one part of hypochlorite solution add in 49 parts of water
  • If blood spills occur:
    • Use one part of hypochlorite solution add in 49 parts of water for non-metallic and 70% alcohol for metallic items.
    • If spills involve large amount of blood, the blood should be removed by disposable material soaked with one part of hypochlorite solution add in 4 parts of water before further cleaning and disinfection

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patient teaching cough etiquette
Instruction should include cont.:

Offering masks to persons who are coughing,

Separating coughing persons at least 3 feet away from others in a waiting room or have separate locality.

Instructing patients and providers not to touch eyes, nose, or mouth.

Having health care personnel observe droplet precautions in addition to standard precautions.

Health care workers should use standard precautions with all patients.

Patient Teaching/Cough Etiquette-

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principles of precautions for high risk procedures in mdro s
Limit unnecessary procedures

Limit extent of procedure

Limit number of persons involved

Effective decontamination of used items

Principles of precautions for high-risk procedures in MDRo’S
practice rationalism of antibiotic usage
Practice rationalism of antibiotic usage
  • Judicious antibiotic use, comprehensive surveillance for targeted MDROs, application of infection control precautions during patient care, environmental measures (e.g., cleaning and disinfection of the patient care environment and equipment, dedicated single-patient-use of non-critical equipment), and decolonization therapy when appropriate.

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prevention and transmission is a complex problem
Prevention and transmission is a complex problem
  • Preventing the emergence and transmission of these pathogens requires a comprehensive approach that includes administrative involvement and measures (e.g., nurse staffing, communication systems, performance improvement processes to ensure adherence to recommended infection control measures), education and training of medical and other healthcare personnel,

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control of mdro s is a national priority
Control of mdro’s is a national priority
  • The prevention and control of MDROs is a national priority - one that requires that all healthcare facilities and agencies assume responsibility and participate in community-wide control programs

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multidrug resistant strains are a global problem we are all concerned
Multidrug resistant strains are a global problem we are all concerned
  • Antibiotic resistance has both medical and financial costs. It causes longer and more serious illnesses, lengthening people’s stays in hospital and complicating their treatment. Sometimes people die unnecessarily. . At the moment, resistant bacteria threaten mostly children, the old, cancer patients and the chronically ill. Nearly 450,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are recorded each year; one-third of these people die from the disease. More than a quarter of new cases of TB identified recently in parts of Russia were of this troublesome kind.

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Programme created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Health care Workers in the Developing World

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