vocabulary n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Vocabulary PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Vocabulary

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 48

Vocabulary - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 245 Views
  • Uploaded on

Vocabulary. Linda Pearce Literacy Consultant OVEC lpearce@ovec.org. Vocabulary Session Goals. To provide research based information regarding vocabulary instruction To provide strategies for vocabulary development. Vocabulary.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Vocabulary' - doctor


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
vocabulary

Vocabulary

Linda Pearce

Literacy Consultant

OVEC

lpearce@ovec.org

vocabulary session goals
Vocabulary Session Goals
  • To provide research based information regarding vocabulary instruction
  • To provide strategies for vocabulary development
vocabulary1
Vocabulary

“. . . vocabulary is the glue that holds stories, ideas, and content together . . . making comprehension accessible for children.”

—Rupley, Logan, & Nichols, 1998/1999, p. 339

types of vocabulary
Types of Vocabulary

Listening

Speaking

Reading

Writing

vocabulary acquisition
Vocabulary Acquisition
  • At age 5-6 children have 2,500-5,000 word in their oral vocabulary.
  • 3,000 words per year are added during their early school years (average 8 words/day).
  • Typical vocabulary lessons focus on 10-20 words per week.
  • 25-50% of annual vocabulary growth is incidental.
vocabulary acquisition1
Vocabulary Acquisition
  • At age 5-6 children have 2,500-5,000 word in their oral vocabulary.
  • 3,000 words per year are added during their early school years (average 8 words/day).
  • Typical vocabulary lessons focus on 10-20 words per week.
  • 25-50% of annual vocabulary growth is incidental.
model demonstration
Model/Demonstration
  • Carving is appropriate for most green and blue slopes and even some black slopes. However, if you try to carve through moguls, especially in packed powder or corn snow, you’re going to face-plant.
goals of effective reading vocabulary instruction
Goals of Effective Reading Vocabulary Instruction
  • Enhance a more sophisticated language
  • Connect new words to existing knowledge
  • Strengthen ability to understand text
  • Increase reading comprehension and academic success
  • Expand leisure reading
what we know from research
What We Know from Research

Students develop vocabulary through:

explicit vocabulary instruction

wide reading

— reading a lot

— reading different types of text

__ fiction and non-fiction

— focusing on specific words and their meanings

__ teaching independent word learning strategies

vocabulary research
Vocabulary Research
  • Researchers have named vocabulary knowledge as the most important factor in reading comprehension. (White, Sowell, & Yanagihara, 1989)
  • Effective vocabulary instruction requires active and positive student participation. (Carr & Wixson, 1986)
  • Personal engagement with a new word can lead to deep processing of meaning. (Dole, Sloan & Trathen, 1995)
vocabulary research continued
Vocabulary Research(Continued)

National Reading Panel 2000:

  • Repetition and multiple exposures to vocabulary items are important.
  • Learning in rich contexts, incidental learning, and the use of computer technology all enhance the acquisition of vocabulary.
  • Direct instruction should include task restructuring and should engage the student.
  • Dependence on a single vocabulary instruction method will not result in optimal learning.
slide12
“It is imperative to be mindful of the serious limitations inherent in the three most common vocabulary teaching practices in K-12 classrooms” Kevin Feldman & Kate Kinsella

What Doesn’t Work

  • Looking up words in the dictionary;
  • Using written context to figure out word meanings;
  • Unplanned vocabulary teaching.
marzano s six steps to effective vocabulary instruction
Marzano’s Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction
  • Teacher provides description, explanation, or example of new term
  • Students relate explanation of the term in their own words
  • Students create nonlinguistic representation of term
  • Students periodically do activities that help them add to their knowledge of vocabulary terms
  • Periodically, students are asked to discuss terms with one another
  • Periodically, students are involved in games that allow them to play with the terms
guidelines for selecting to be learned vocabulary
Guidelines for Selecting “To-Be-Learned” Vocabulary:

DO:

  • Less is more—Depth is more
  • Teach terms that are central to the unit or theme of study
  • Teach terms that address key concepts or ideas
  • Teach terms that will be used repeatedly throughout the term, semester, or year.
guidelines for selecting to be learned vocabulary1
Guidelines for Selecting “To-Be-Learned” Vocabulary:

AVOID:

  • Teaching/Assigning words just because they are highlighted in some way
  • Teaching/Assigning words just because they appear in a list at the end of a text chapter
  • Teaching/Assigning words that will have little utility once the student has passed the student has passed the test
  • Assigning words that you cannot define
  • Assigning large quantities of words
  • Assigning words that students will rarely encounter again
which words are critical
Which words are critical?

Consider these questions:

  • Is the word important to comprehending the text?
  • Does the word appear again and again?
  • Will knowledge of the word help in other content areas?
  • Is the word likely to be in the student’s prior knowledge?
  • Is the word defined within the body of the text?
levels of language selecting words
Levels of Language“Selecting Words”

Beck, McKeown, and Kucan, 2002

levels of language
Levels of Language

Tier I Language

  • High Frequency Words
  • Examples: give, have, that, the of, baby, crawl
  • Basic words whose meanings are

commonly known or function words- words that

make spoken and written language coherent and

readable

irregular sight words
Irregular/Sight Words
  • contain some letters that do not represent their most commonly used sounds
  • tend to be high frequency words that students encounter often in their reading and writing
  • can be partially decoded
teaching high frequency words
TeachingHigh-Frequency Words
  • High-Frequency words are those words that students need to know by sight because they appear so often in texts that automatic recognition is helpful
  • The ultimate goal is for all words to be read automatically and with little effort
  • a, and, for, he, is, in, it,

of, that, the, to, was, you

automaticity
Automaticity
  • refers to a reader’s ability to recognize words without conscious decoding

*readers recognize words as whole units

*readers recognize words quickly and accurately

levels of language1
Levels of Language

Tier II Language

  • Sophisticated words (examples: absurd, commotion, reluctant)
  • Words that appear frequently across a variety of domains
  • Words can be worked with in a variety of ways to build rich representations and connections
  • New words not common to young children’s oral language, high frequency for mature language users, mature or more precise labels for concepts young children have under control, words more typically found in written language
levels of language2
Levels of Language

Tier III Language

  • Specialized Vocabulary
  • Examples: evaporation asymmetrical peninsula
  • Specialized words typically associated with a content area or topic
bringing words to life robust vocabulary instruction isabel beck et al
Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction Isabel Beck et al
  • Tier II:

Johnny Harrington was a kind master who treated his servants fairly. He was also a successful wood merchant, and his business required that he travel often. In his absence, his servants would tend to the fields and cattle and maintain the upkeep of his mansion. They performed their duties happily, for they felt fortunate to have such a benevolent and trusting master.

possible explanations
Tier Two Words:

Merchant

Required

Tend

Maintain

Performed

Fortunate

Benevolent

Students’ likely expressions:

Salesperson or clerk

Have to

Take care of

Keep going

Did

Lucky

Kind

Possible Explanations
bringing words to life robust vocabulary instruction isabel beck et al1
Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction Isabel Beck et al
  • Tier II:

The servants would never comment on this strange occurrence [finding the kitchen clean even though none of them were seen doing the cleaning], each servant hoping the other had tended to the chores. Never would they mention the loud noises they’d hear emerging from the kitchen in the middle of the night. Nor would they admit to pulling the covers under their chins as they listened to the sound of haunting laughter that drifted down the halls to their bedrooms each night. In reality, they knew there was a more sinister reason behind their good fortune.

possible explanations1
Tier Two Words:

Comment

Occurrence

Tended

Mention

Emerging

Admit

Haunting

Reality

Sinister

fortune

Students’ likely expressions:

Something someone has to say

Something happening

Took care of

Tell

Coming out

To say you did something

Scary

Being real

Scary

Luck

Possible Explanations
what if there are not enough words
Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction by Isabel L. Beck, Margaret G. McKeown, & Linda KucanWhat If There Are Not Enough Words?

expand

coordinate

Situations

Character

play off

words

what if there are not enough words1
What If There Are Not Enough Words?
  • Consider a story in which two children (Pam and Matt) try on a number of silly hats, some of which are very big and two of which are exactly alike.
  • A number of words came to mind, and we chose absurd, enormous, and identical.
  • Next, we suggest how those words might be introduced to young children.
what if there are not enough words2
What If There Are Not Enough Words?
  • In the story, Pam and Matt had very, very silly hats.
  • Another way to say that something is very, very silly is to say that it is absurd.
  • When something is absurd, it is so silly it’s hard to believe.
what if there are not enough words3
What If There Are Not Enough Words?
  • Some of the hats that Pam and Matt word were so big that all you could see were their feet.
  • Another way to say that something is very, very big is to say that it is enormous.
  • Enormous means “very big—very, very big.”
what if there are not enough words4
What If There Are Not Enough Words?
  • Pam and Matt put on red hats that were almost exactly alike.
  • A way to say that two things are exactly alike is to say that they are identical.
  • Identical means “exactly alike.”
beck routine for choosing tier ii words
Beck Routine for choosing Tier II words:
  • Put word on a card
  • Include a picture
  • Students generate a student friendly definition
  • Students use word(s) in a sentence
application
Application
  • Listen to each word
  • Rate your knowledge by marking the appropriate column.
  • Form a co-operative group to construct definitions.

4. Listen as I read each word in context

  • If you were in a group, you would make changes, or leave the definition as it is.
  • If you cannot figure out the definition, check in a dictionary or textbook.
frayer model
Frayer Model
  • The Frayer Model is a word categorization activity that helps learners develop their understanding of concepts. (Frayer, Frederick & Klausmeier, 1969)
slide41

Semantic Map

WORDS

Words

Words

vocabulary

slide42

SemanticMap

WORDS

Words

Words

vocabulary

slide43

SemanticMap

WORDS

Words

Words

vocabulary

application1
Application
  • Choose a key term from your content vocabulary
  • Design a sample ‘Frayer Model’
  • Post examples to share with others
develop a plan for vocabulary instruction
Develop a Plan for Vocabulary Instruction
  • Engage students in wide reading
  • Provide direct instruction
  • Assure both verbal and nonlinguistic representation
  • Encourage elaboration and refinement
the importance of vocabulary skills
The Importance of Vocabulary Skills

The strongest action a teacher can take to ensure that students have the academic background knowledge they need to understand the content they will encounter in school is vocabulary instruction. (Marzano, Pickering, 2005)