U s world s response to the rising aggression
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U.S./ World’s Response to the Rising Aggression. US 2 Advanced. Previous Attempts to Keep Peace. Washington Conference 1921 Kellogg Briand Pact World Disarmament Conference – Geneva,1932 Again, France wanted to create an international army to counter Germany’s growing power

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Previous Attempts to Keep Peace

  • Washington Conference 1921

  • Kellogg Briand Pact

  • World Disarmament Conference – Geneva,1932

    • Again, France wanted to create an international army to counter Germany’s growing power

    • US instead wanted to

      • the decrease of offensive weapons (tanks, bombers)

      • Reduce land and naval forces

    • Conference dissolved in failure.


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Japan’s Rising Aggression

Get with a partner, fill out Japan aggression sheet.


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U.S./ World’s Response - Japan

  • Option #1 – U.S. Secretary of State Henry Stimson continued to hope the moderates would regain control and halt the invasion

    • Militarist stayed in control, invasion of Manchuria complete by 1932


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U.S./World’s Response to Japanese

  • Option #2 – Stimson issued stern warnings

    • Toothless warnings


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U.S./World’s Reaction to Japanese

  • Option #3 – go along with League of Nations in economic sanctions

    • Hoover refused to cooperate w/ the League of Nations

    • Japan withdrew from the League in 1933


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U.S./World’s Reaction to Japanese

  • Option #4 – Refuse to grant diplomatic recognition to the new Japanese territories

    • Japan just does it anyway


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Effects of Japan in Manchuria

- Japan unconcerned, ultimately expanded aggression attacking Shanghai and Nanjing killed thousands of civilians.


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Effects of Japan in Manchuria

- Rejected League of Nations and any Naval limitations from Washington Conference

- Became allies with Hitler and Mussolini


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Italy in Ethiopia

  • 1880s and 1890s, Italy gained little territory in Africa

  • 1890s, Italy was defeated by African powers, = HUMILIATION of Italy

  • Mussolini wants revenge  invades Ethiopia in 1935

  • Despite Ethiopian resistance, Italy was successful


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U.S./ World Response - Italy

  • World Response - League gives economic sanctions on Italy

    1. Oil excluded from sanctions

    2. Not effectively enforced

    3. Leading Countries Do Not Follow Along

    Ex. Britain allows Italian ships through the Suez Canal on way to Ethiopia

  • US Response - Give No Support to Either Side


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Outcome of Diplomacy with Italy

  • Italy after WW1 on side of Allies, Mussolini had distrust of Hitler too

  • After Ethiopia, Mussolini resigns from League because of League sanctions

  • Relationship with allies deteriorates which allows opportunity to become closer with Hitler

  • 1936 first references Rome-Berlin Axis


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Effects of Mussolini’s Shift

  • This kills the League of Nations as a peace keeping instrument

    a. Ethiopian emperor basically makes Eulogy

    b. Threatens France w/ a two front war

    c. Diplomacy is now a shift in ideology over interests

  • May 1939 - Pact of Steel – formal pact between Hitler and Mussolini


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