Biotechnology BIT-110 (3 hrs). Dr. Hajra Sadia (PhD, Biotechnology). Course Outline. Animal Biotechnology Animal cell culture and characterization of cell lines Application of animal cell culture Transgenic animal technology Environmental Biotechnology Bioremediation Phytoremediation
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BiotechnologyBIT-110 (3 hrs) Dr. HajraSadia (PhD, Biotechnology)
Course Outline • Animal Biotechnology • Animal cell culture and characterization of cell lines • Application of animal cell culture • Transgenic animal technology • Environmental Biotechnology • Bioremediation • Phytoremediation • Utilization of biomass • Biomining and bioleaching • Biotechnology in medicine and health care • Gene therapy • Xenotransplantation • Forensic Biotechnology • Human Genome Project • Impacts of biotechnology on human beings: Biotechnology Ethics • Fundamentals of biotechnology • Core Techniques in Biotechnology • DNA Technology • From DNA to proteins • Principals of recombinant DNA technology • Microbial Biotechnology • Products from microorganisms • Fermentation: principal and application • Food biotechnology • Plant Biotechnology • Plant tissue culture and applications • Genetically Engineered Plants • Applications of Plant genetic engineering • Biofertilizers
Recommended Books • Biotechnology By Bourgaize et al. (2003) • Basic Biotechnology 3rd ed. By Ratledge and Kristiansen (2008) • Biotechnology: Principles and Applications By Rastogi (2007) • Biotechnology: An introduction By Ignacimuthu (2008)
Marks distribution First 1 hr Exam 20 % Second 1 hr Exam 20 % Assignment 5 % Quiz 5 % Terminal Exam 50 %
Biotechnology: An Introduction What is Biotechnology?
What is Biotechnology ? bios = life teuchos = tool logos = study of or essence of e.g. the study of tools from living things/organisms Classical definition “Biotechnology is a set of tools that utilize living things (and more recently, derivatives of living things) to solve problems or to provide products”
What is Biotechnology ? The application of various sciences (i.e., immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, botany, animal science, etc.) to develop products or to solve problems. • Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress defines biotechnology as "any technique that uses living organisms or their products to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses."
What is Biotechnology ? Utilization of a biological process, be it microbial, plant or animal cells or their constituents to provide goods and services to mankind. Goods: Products of industries concerned with food, beverages, pharmaceutical, biochemicals and winning of metals Services: Largely concerned with water purification, industrial and domestic waste management including sewage water
The Promise of Biotechnology • Diagnosing disease • Curing disease • Nutritious food/feed • Healthy food/feed • Productive land • Feeding the poor • Sustainable agriculture • Healthy environment
Raw Material Upstream Processing Fermentation and Biotransformation Downstream Processing Pure Product History of Biotechnology The term "biotechnology" was coined in 1919 by Karl Ereky, Hungarian engineer All lines of work by which products are produced from raw materials with the aid of living things
Traditional biotechnology has been used for thousands of years to produce improved food and health care products. • Modern biotechnology enables us to develop improved products more safely and more rapidly than ever before. • Biotechnology in one form or another has flourished since prehistoric times.
Examples… • They could plant their own crops and breed their own animals, they learned to use biotechnology. • The discovery that fruit juices fermented into wine, or that milk could be converted into cheese or yogurt, or that beer could be made by fermenting solutions of malt and hops began the study of Biotechnology • When the first bakers found that they could make a soft, spongy bread rather than a firm, thin cracker, they were acting as fledgling biotechnologists. • The first animal breeders, realizing that different physical traits could be either magnified or lost by mating appropriate pairs of animals, engaged in the manipulations of biotechnology.
Modern Biotechnology Recombinant genetic engineering… …….Using biological process to develop products G. Steven Burrill 1997
Why Biotechnology? Bioproduction of drugs so complex they can only be synthesized in a living system
Origins of Biotechnology • Historical pharmaceutical biotechnology: • Alexander Fleming discovery of penicillin from bread mold - 1928 • Large scale broth tank production of penicillin for injuries – Florey & Chain • Modern pharmaceutical biotechnology: • interspecies genetic transplantation • hybridoma – tumor cell and leukocyte fusions • heterologous protein production (microbes, animal and plant cells)
Biotechnology Timeline • 1750 B.C. Sumerians use yeast to brew beer • 500 B.C. Chinese use mold as an antibiotic to treat boils • 1863 Mendel discovers transmission of genetic traits • 1906 First early study of genes; term “genetics” introduced • 1919 Term “biotechnology” first used by agriculturalist • 1928 Penicillin discovered • 1953 Watson and Crick discover double-helix structure of DNA • 1960 First synthetic antibiotic
Biotechnology Timeline (Cont…) • 1963-64 The Green Revolution (dwarf wheat with 70% increased yield through hybridization) • 1965 Mouse-human cells successfully fused • 1966-68 Genetic code cracked • 1971 First complete synthesis of a gene • 1971 Restriction enzyme discovered (EcoRI) • 1973-78 Recombinant DNA technology to cut and paste genes • 1975 DNA sequencing • 1975 Hybridoma technology (monoclonal antibodies) • 1978 Insulin gene cloned • 1980-88 Live organism patented (Engineered mice)
Biotechnology: last 30 Years • 1981 First transgenic animal • 1982 First biotech drug marketed (Insulin) • 1983 First transgenic plant (tobacco) • 1983 First artificial chromosome • 1985 Genetically engineered plants field tested • 1986 Use of microbes to clean up oil spill • 1986 Polymerase chain reaction by Kary Mullis, revolutionize molecular biology (Nobel prize 93) • 1988 First patent for genetically altered animal (transgenic mouse) • 1995 First non-viral full gene sequence completed
Biotechnology: last 20 Years (Cont…) • 1996-98 First mammal cloned (Dolly the cloned sheep unveiled) • 2000 First entire plant genome sequenced (Arabidopsis thaliana) • 2001 Cloning banned (the US house of representatives passes the human cloning prohibition act of 2001, a ban on all human cloning • 2002 Mapping of human genome virtually complete • 2002-date Rethinking of RNA (scientists are forced to rethink their view of RNA when they discover how important small pieces of RNA are in controlling many cell functions • 2005 Human genome confirmed
Molecular Biology Microbiology Biochemistry Genetics Chemical Engineering Cell Biology Crops Drugs Vaccines Diagnostic Livestock Environment BIOTECHNOLOGY
Biotechnology Biotechnology is an integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology and engineering sciences to achieve technological applications of the capabilities of microbes, cultured tissue cells and parts thereof for production of value added products.
Applications • Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including • health care (medical), • crop production and agriculture, • non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and • environmental uses.
Bioinformatics • An interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological data possible. • The field may also be referred to as computational biology, • conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale. • Bioinformatics plays a key role in various areas, such as functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector.
Blue biotechnology • Blue biotechnology is concerned with the application of molecular biological methods to marine and freshwater organisms. • It involves the use of these organisms, and their derivatives, for purposes such as increasing seafood supply and safety, controlling the proliferation of noxious water-borne organisms, and developing new drugs.
Green biotechnology • Biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. • Selection and domestication of plants via micropropagation. • Designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environments in the presence (or absence) of chemicals. Green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture. • Engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby ending the need of external application of pesticides. • E.g. Bt corn.
Red biotechnology • application of biotechnology in the medicine and human healthcare sector. • Therapeutic proteins • Designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and • Engineering of genetic cures through genetic manipulation.
White biotechnology • Also known as industrial biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. • Designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. • Use of enzymes as industrial catalysts to either produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous/polluting chemicals. • White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods.
Applications of Biotechnology: • Food Industry • Pharmaceutical Industry • Chemical Industry • Enzyme Industry • Mining Industry • Agricultural Industry • Environmental Industry