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Faculty of Education -U of M
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Work Study of Work, Employment and Career Development of Young People employment career Development
Class Agenda 1. Explore the implications of the current changes in the local and global world of work 2. Evaluate children’s perspectives about careers 3. Appraise the link between school-based practices and young people’s career and college readiness
GOAL 1 Explore the implications of the current changes in the local and global world of work
Some Current Changes In the Local and Global World of Work Increased Capitalism International operation of large business corporations Non-traditional work High mobility Increased flexibility Fluid organizational structure
Decentralized Organizational Systems • More casual workforce ( portfolio workers etc) • Longer hours • Economic activities not controlled locally • Global division of labour
Some current changes in the local and global world of work Post-Modern Determinants of Success • Onus on the individual ( flexibility, openness) • Psychology of earning ethic • Advancement by skill documentation • Ability to demonstrate competence in managing and using: • Resources Interpersonal skills • Information Systems Technology
Some current changes in the local and global world of work Critique: “Positive” Critique: “Negative” Increased security Individual-driven job market Creativity and alternative pathways to economic security Greater flexibility Planning to plan is the way to go • Less employment security • Increase in part time work • Low pay rates • High staff turnover • More stringent performance monitoring of employees • Monstrous competitive market • Fixed planning no longer a safeguard • Low job satisfaction
How should school policy and practice respond to this assertion? • The meaning that people attribute to their work has changed and the degree of volition that people are expected to exercise in their work lives remains a luxury of the more affluent minority living in society. Therefore it becomes imperative that people who work with young people develop new paradigms that offer a means of understanding the complexity and nuances of the role of work in people’s lives Coutinho, Dam and Bluestein, 2008, p.12
Hughey& Hughey’s (1999) Response to the changing world of work Global competition is inevitable therefore help students develop marketable skills and competencies Knowledge is a valuable commodity therefore expose both college bound and non college bound students to a variety of learning options Change will continue to be a constant therefore teach expose them to the benefits of flexibility, openness and adaptability
Hughey& Hughey’s (1999) Response to the changing world of work The onus for career success is now on the individual therefore school and society should model responsibility taking for young people Empower all children to take their careers fates in their own hands therefore make self determination a core learning component
Hughey& Hughey’s (1999) Response to the changing world of work Emphasize integration of academic and career development learning – for every student K-12 Provide structured and unstructured learning Opportunities about self and occupational options Create awareness of multiple pathways to life success Involve parents and community early
GOAL 2 Evalutechildren’s Perspective about career
What do children want to know about careers? • Know where– understand labor markets, skill requirements and locations of these markets • Know when– understand “timing” issues such as labour market surpluses and shortages, current and future career opportunities and how to take advantage of them (Hughes, 2004, 12)
What do children want to know about careers? • Know why – understand their own interests, values and motivations to help set a meaningful career direction • Know how – acquire the knowledge, skills and experiences required to manage work and learning decisions and transitions • Know whom – make the most of contacts and networks to help improve chances of success (Hughes, 2004, 12)
Think through your own career development journey Look over the two previous slides again Where did you receive most assistance to know: ‘where, when, why, how and whom’ of career as discussed above?
Group and Share Please record your ideas on paper Review the information on the next four (6) slides. In your group of three, based on your own practical experiences about your people, brainstorm and add • other things that young people want to know about careers and • other career concerns and perceptions of young people How should these career development needs, concerns and perceptions of youth impact our approach to educating young people?
What do children want to know about careers? Resources, activities and networks that help them: • pursue their passion (84 percent) • understand interests/abilities (82 percent) • acquire post-secondary information (76 percent); • obtain financial information (73 percent) • help with planning process (72 percent) • support career plans (71 percent) Magnusson and Bernes, 2001
What do children want to know about careers? Clear paths for career development in an industry • Honest, balanced and full disclosure on occupations and the industry – pros and cons and concrete work life experiences • Accurate, timely and appropriate PSE information and • Objective perspectives on careers other than those accessed by university training Canadian Apprenticeship Forum, 2004; CPRN March 2006
Adolescents’ Perception of Career Concern Code, et al. (2006) Junior High Students • Training and education • Finishing school with good grades • Applicable training and educational opportunities • Future Job and Financial Security • Desire secure employment but have sense of insecurity
What do children want to know about careers? • Satisfaction • Concern about strenuous work tasks, stressful days and ‘no life’ • Reaching the expectation of employers • Commitment
Adolescents’ Perception of Career Concern Code, et al. (2006) Senior High Students -Fear of making wrong occupational choice -Having to decide
Prevailing Youth Perceptions about Different Pathways to the Labor Market Post-Secondary Education • More than two-thirds of the students, both male and female, associate technology simply with computers (Hypatia Project, 2002) • Females underestimate their own abilities in science and math (Manicom,Armour and Parsons, 2004)
Prevailing Youth Perceptions about Different Pathways to the Labor Market Post-Secondary Education • “…students generally see scientists through a narrow lens. They associate science with chemistry and biology and almost 40 percent of them associate science occupations with doing research in a laboratory” (Hypatia Project, 2002) • Boys who take science were described as ‘geeks’ and ‘nerdy’; girls who chose science were described as ‘brave’ or ‘driven’ (and, by extension, ‘different’) (Griffin, n.d.)
Prevailing Youth Perceptions about Different Pathways to the Labor Market Careers in Trade • Would consider a career in skilled trade: 32% • University is their first option: 52% • skilled trades offered a viable, challenging or fun • career choice : Few (Canadian Apprenticeship Forum, 2004)
Prevailing Youth Perceptions about Different Pathways to the Labor Market Careers in Trade • Perceived negative attitude of guidance counselors towards apprenticeship (CAF, 2004 • Limited knowledge about the careers in trades • Aboriginal students and visible minorities often lack information about trade-related jobs and held negative attitudes and a poor image of trades (CAF, 2004)
GOAL 3 Appraise the link between government policy, school practices and young people’s career development
Provincial Career-development Mandate for Manitoba (ECY & AET) • Career development is recognized as essential to the social and economic well-being of Manitobans • Manitobans have the knowledge and the abilities to set and achieve career goals • Manitobans have access to quality resources required to make informed education
Provincial Career-development Mandate for Manitoba (ECY & AET) • Training and employment choices should be emphasized in on an ongoing basis • Manitobans have the employability skills and attitudes to work and adapt effectively to the needs of the workplace • Stakeholders in career development have a forum to exchange information and work cooperatively
Career Development -Optional • “Currently, two-thirds of Canadian occupations require some form of education beyond high school. With countless education and training opportunities and thousands of jobs to consider, the task of choosing a direction and deciding what kind of work to pursue after graduation can be challenging.” • Grade 9 Career development: Life/Work exploration (10S) • Grade 10 Career development: Life/Work Planning (20S) • Grade 11 Career development: Life/Work Building (30S) • Grade 12 Career development: Life/Work Transitioning (40S) http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/cardev/gr10_found/blms/index.html; Moss and Tilly, 2001; Wilson, 1996
Based on your experience, how do school-based career development practices tie into Manitoba career development policy mandates? Are school practices crucial to the accomplishment of these mandates? How would the future of young people be impacted if there is a gap between official mandates and school practices? What could schools do to help attain these mandates?
How Ready are Schools for this Reality? “it is no longer reasonable to prepare some students for Post secondary education(PSE) and others for work…The old dichotomies of ‘college bound’ and ‘work bound’ no longer apply….the skills necessary to succeed in PSE are virtually the same as those required to succeed in the workforce” Achieve Inc & The Education Trust, 2008, p.4
State of Career and College Readiness (CCR) in Manitoba Status How will a CCR focus contribute to youth CD? -Increased aspirations for Post Secondary Education (CCDF, 2003) -Reduced number of dropouts (Hiebert and Bezanson,1999) -Reduced number of “trial and error” learners -Increased career maturity and career certainty (Dykeman et al, 2003) -Increased school engagement and academic success (CCDF, 2003) Manitoba has the second highest rate of high school drop out in the country Stats Canada, 2004; 2010
State of Career and College Readiness (CCR) in Manitoba Status How will a CCR focus contribute to youth CD? Possession of some form of Postsecondary training has a direct effect on an individual’s ability to compete and support a family in the modern economy Postsecondary training is the gateway to better jobs and higher standard of living Employee skills levels are failing to keep pace with market demands By 2018, nearly two thirds of available jobs will require some form of higher education Nearly 1 in 4 high school drop outs in Manitoba are not hired by employers Stats Canada, 2004; 2010
State of Career and College Readiness (CCR) in Manitoba Status How will a CCR focus contribute to Youth CD? College and career readiness planning often start late among minorities ( Schneider et al. 2000) Habits of the heart and mind to succeed in post secondary education and work require personal agency developed over time (Hyslop, 2005; Reid, 2008) Personal story work is critical to the development of career related personal agency (Cochran, 1995) • COLLEGE READINESS IS LOW: • Drop out rate before completing college= 65% • Drop out rate before completing university= 30% • Major Reasons: • Difficulty keeping up with demand of studies • Invalid self-assessment of abilities and readiness from high school PRAC Inc. (2006). Survey of Early School Leavers: Universities and Colleges in Manitoba
What do schools which promote Career and College Readiness do? • They highlight the reality of an emerging high skill demand that typically require rigorous learning engagement in K-12 and some education beyond high school Achieve, 2008; Byrd & Macdonald (2005); ACT ( 2004 a, b); Wimberly & Noeth (2004); Venezia, Kirst & Antonion (2003); Adelman (1999).
State of Career and College Readiness (CCR) in Manitoba They Bring Intentionality into 21st Century Learning • Life Skills • 21st century content • Core subjects • Learning and thinking skills • ICT Literacy • 21st Century assessments
State of Career and College Readiness (CCR) in Manitoba • Begin CCR awareness early • Help parents and students to understand the effects of taking a challenging curriculum on future educational, career and income options • Use multiple sources to inform parents and students of students’ progress toward CCR • Emphasize linkages with university, college and workplace expectations • Encourage early exploration and planning Achieve, 2008; Byrd & Macdonald (2005); ACT ( 2004 a, b); Wimberly & Noeth (2004); Venezia, Kirst & Antonion (2003); Adelman (1999).
State of Career and College Readiness (CCR) in Manitoba • Integrate CCR into Learning and assessment K-12 • Facilitate intentional CCR demonstration for the purpose of updating and refocusing of skills K-12 • Constantly link students to the world beyond the classroom K-12 Achieve, 2008; Byrd & Macdonald (2005); ACT ( 2004 a, b); Wimberly & Noeth (2004); Venezia, Kirst & Antonion (2003); Adelman (1999).
THANK YOU FOR COMING What have we learnt this week about Work, World of work, Career Information and Career Education?