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Sedimentary Rocks. Clastic vs. Non-clastic. Sedimentary rocks in two major groups Clastic (detrital) Composed of fragments of silicate minerals (mostly quartz and clay) Name largely determined by the grain size (see handout) Non-clastic Composed of various minerals (usually just one)

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clastic vs non clastic
Clastic vs. Non-clastic
  • Sedimentary rocks in two major groups
  • Clastic (detrital)
    • Composed of fragments of silicate minerals (mostly quartz and clay)
    • Name largely determined by the grain size (see handout)
  • Non-clastic
    • Composed of various minerals (usually just one)
    • Name largely determined by the composition
clastic detrital
Clastic (detrital)
  • Coarse grained (> 2 mm)
    • Conglomerate (rounded pieces)
    • Breccia (angular pieces)
  • Medium grained (<2 mm but still visible)
    • Quartz sandstone (mostly quartz)
    • Arkose (abundant feldspar – often pink)
    • Greywacke (much clay – often dark in colour)
  • Fine grained rocks (cannot see ind. grains)
    • All “mudrocks”
    • Siltstone (gritty), shale (splits easily), claystone (smooth, slippery feel)
non clastic
Non-clastic
  • All one mineral (usually)
  • Often “crystalline” (visibly so or VERY smooth (with conchoidal fracture)
  • Named according to mineral present (use hardness and reactivity to HCl)
    • H > glass, no HCl reaction: mineral is chalcedony, rock is chert
    • H ~ penny, no HCl reaction: mineral is dolomite, rock is limestone (dolomitic)
    • H ~ penny, HCl reaction: mineral is calcite, rock is limestone
    • Penny > H > fingernail, salty taste, no HCl reaction: mineral is halite, rock is Rock salt
    • H < fingernail, no HCl reaction: mineral is gypsum, rock is Rock gypsum
doing the lab caco 3
Doing the lab – CaCO3?
  • Test with HCl (acid).
  • Fizz means calcite present.
    • If it’s all calcite – rock is non-clastic
  • Be careful to note if the rock is dominantly calcite or just partly (i.e., is the rock all calcite, a limestone, or just random parts, e.g., a calcite cemented sandstone)
doing the lab c or nc
Doing the lab – C or NC
  • C: is the rock clastic; i.e., composed of discrete particles (grains) of silicate material (quartz, feldspar, clays, etc.)?
  • NC: is the rock non-clastic; i.e., all one mineral, probably a non-silicate, and probably crystalline?
doing the lab grain size
Doing the lab – Grain size
  • Only applicable to clastic rocks (i.e. with non-clastic rocks say “not applicable” or “n.a.”)
  • Coarse grained (c.g.): > 2 mm
  • Medium grained (m.g.): vis. grains to 2 mm
  • Fine grained (f.g.): gritty on teeth
  • Very fine grained (v.f.g.): slippery to feel (probably with an earthy smell)
  • HINT: The higher the clay content of clastic rock the darker the colour.
doing the lab components
Doing the lab – Components
  • What makes up the rock
    • Grains? (Sand, silt, pebbles, …)
    • Of what?
      • A single mineral?
      • Multiple components?
sorting
Sorting
  • Only applicable to clastic rocks (for non-clastic rocks say “n.a.”)
  • Fine-grained (and v.f.g.) rocks are too fine to see the sorting. Say “too fine to see” or “n.d.”
  • Two kinds of sorting
    • Compositional
      • Well = composed of only one component
      • Poor = mix of several different components
    • Size
      • Well = all grains are same size
      • Poor = grains are all sizes
  • Compositional and Size sorting usually go hand-in-hand
other features
Other features
  • Include:
    • Fossils
    • Salty taste
    • Obvious bedding/laminations
    • Ooids (oolites)
slide13
Name
  • Use
    • Handout chart
    • Book
    • Wall poster