The UK Chemicals Stakeholder ForumGuide to Substitution Dr David Taylor Member of the UK Chemicals Stakeholder Forum Royal Society of Chemistry Environment, Health & Safety Committee
UK Chemicals Stakeholder Forum http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/quality/chemicals/csf/index.htm
UK Chemicals Stakeholder ForumPurpose • The purpose of the Forum is to advise Government on managing risks to the environment and to human health via the environment that may result from the production, distribution and use of chemicals. • The Forum aims to be a strategic body, paying due regard • To the promotion of sustainable consumption and production throughout the chemicals supply chain • To the life cycle of chemicals • To the Precautionary Principle • To the need to add value and not replicate activities undertaken elsewhere
UK Chemicals Stakeholder ForumTerms of Reference 2008 • review the effectiveness of REACH in realising its goals in the light of the experience and needs of UK stakeholders; • review the effectiveness of the UK Competent Authority in delivering its obligations under REACH, and engage it in an on-going dialogue to reflect stakeholder views and concerns; • advise Government on measures to promote the sound management of chemicals internationally; • continue to promote voluntary action by industry in the UK where this can make a contribution to a reduction in the overall use of those substances recognised by the Forum as being priorities for action; • communicate and encourage best practice and innovation, and encourage others to do so; • promote more effective linkages throughout the chemicals supply chain, and between all those with an interest in the future of a sustainable and competitive UK chemicals industry.
British Association for Chemical Specialties British Coatings Federation British Plastics Federation British Retail Consortium British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection CHEM Trust Chemical Business Association Chemical Industries Association Chemistry Innovation Knowledge Transfer Network Green Chemistry Network Greenpeace Intellect Non-Ferrous Alliance Royal Society of Chemistry Society of Chemical Industry Trades Union Congress UK Cleaning Products Industry Association Wales Environment Link Peter Calow - Independent Expert Alan Knight - Independent Expert UK Chemicals Stakeholder ForumMembership 2010 Christopher Hughes - Independent Chairman
Substance by Substance Process by Process Product by Service What do we mean by “Substitution” • Substitution is the replacement of a substance, process, product or service by another that maintains the same functionality.
What is the objective of substitution • Substitution should aim, over the whole life cycle of the replacement, to obviate any negative impacts on human health or the environment and improve resource efficiency. Substitution will only be successful where the socioeconomic requirements of all the stakeholders can be satisfied.
Is it an acceptable substitute ? • Functionality: Can an acceptable functionality be delivered? • Compatibility:Is the substitute compatible with all other aspects? • Availability: Is sufficient available and is the supply secure? • Depth of knowledge: Is the level of knowledge of the substitute at least as good as that of the original? • Human & Environmental Impact: What are the impacts on human health & the environment of the original and the alternative? • Efficiency of resource utilisation: Does the substitution lead to any changes in resource utilisation including quality and quantity of waste production? • Socio-Economic Consequences: What are the socio-economic consequences of the change to the end consumer and to all the other actors in the supply chain?
Substitution decisions frequently involve difficult ‘trade offs’ Substitution decision based on ‘hard’ data • Substance Y is safe in use but substance X has a substantially lower acute toxicity to humans. • However if we substitute substance X for Y in our manufacturing process it increases the carbon footprint by 10% and produces 5% more solid waste. Substitution decision based on ‘soft’ data • Product A is highly effective and the brand leader in a highly competitive market. Product B is a little more expensive, is slightly less effective but has a significantly lower environmental footprint.
Examples of Successful Substitution • Process for process • Use of supercritical CO2 to replace organic solvents • Substance for substance • Replacement of arsenic in wood preservatives • Mechanism for mechanism • Low friction antifouling surfaces to replace copper based paints • Product for product • Introduction of ‘cold water’ laundry detergents • Service for product • Closed loop chlorinated solvent recycling
Sustainable DesignUsing the initial design process to reduce the need for future substitution • Substitutions involve changes to an existing situation. • Sometimes these result from new knowledge or drivers • Sometimes from a reappraisal of existing knowledge • Sustainable Design involves a holistic appraisal of the complete product life-cycle • Potentially avoids the need for much reactive substitution • The final part of the UKCSF Guide deals with this. • An extensive guide is available at CIKTN the website • https://ktn.innovateuk.org/web/sustainable-design/key-activities
Remember that, despite our best efforts, unintended consequences can still be expected
Conclusions • One of the aims of the UK CSF is the promotion of sustainable consumption & production throughout the chemicals supply chain. • The CSF Guide provides an easily accessible introduction to the process of substitution. • Substitution is the replacement of a substance, process, product or service by another that maintains the same functionality • Substitution will only be successful • if the socioeconomic needs of all the stakeholders can be satisfied. • where comparable information is available for the substitutes • Substitution decisions will frequently require “trade offs” • More attention to sustainable design may reduce the need for subsequent substitutions.
EU Project: Substitution of chemical substances in the workplace ToSCA Reform Bill HR5820 REACH Annex XIV Candidate List UKCSF - Disseminate the Guide widely - Monitor progress & Review Where do we go from here?
The UK Chemicals Stakeholder ForumGuide to Substitution Any Questions? Dr David Taylor Member of the UK Chemicals Stakeholder Forum Royal Society of Chemistry Environment, Health & Safety Committee